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who ordered the massacre of glencoe

who ordered the massacre of glencoe

The killing of 38 members of the MacDonald clan on February 13 1692 by Campbell-led government troops is one of the darkest … [18] In summary, the Glencoe MacDonalds were a small clan with few friends and powerful enemies. So while the massacre was carried out by … He first went to nearby Fort William, which at that time was a government military base. The massacre was only one in a series of incidents deemed as such, including the Darien scheme, the famine of the late 1690s, and the Union of 1707. [25], In his letters of 30 January to Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton and Colonel Hill, Stair expresses concern the MacDonalds would escape if warned, and emphasises the need for secrecy. You are to have a special care that the old Fox and his sons do upon no account escape your hands, you are to secure all the avenues that no man escape.” Glencoe Massacre Memorial Inscription (Photo credit: Kim Traynor) The massacre began at 5am the next morning. [21] On 12 February, Hill ordered Hamilton to take 400 men and block the northern exits from Glencoe at Kinlochleven. '[43], After the study of Scottish history re-emerged in the 1950s, Leslie's perspectives continued to shape views of William's reign as particularly disastrous for Scotland. Despite assurances at Fort William that McIain would be protected, word was delivered to Dalrymple at his office in Kensington Palace by Archibald, 10th Earl of Argyll, Chief of Clan Campbell, that MacIain’s certificate was void. Muster rolls also show that Campbells made up a minority the government-backed troops dispatched to Glencoe. Four clans from this area were named as particularly responsible; the Glencoe and Keppoch MacDonalds, the MacGregors and the Camerons. '[29] The impetus behind an inquiry was political; as a former member of James' administration, who then became a supporter of the new regime, Stair was unpopular with both sides. The actual massacre itself was a direct order from the Master of Stair, Joint-Secretary of State for Scotland for the new King, William of Orange.Thirty-eight MacDonalds from the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe were killed by the Campbells, (the guests who had accepted thei… It was a significant element in the persistence of Jacobitism in the Highlands, and remains a powerful symbol for a variety of reasons. Scotland's History Union and Jacobites The Glencoe Massacre The Glencoe Massacre – 1692 The Adobe Flash player and Javascript are required in order to view a video which appears on this page. [20], Highland regiments were formed by first appointing Captains, each responsible for recruiting sixty men from his own estates. [4], However, a continuing low level Scottish insurgency used resources William needed for the Nine Years' War. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. In preparation to carrying out the massacre, two companies of Argyle’s regiment, a total of about 120 men, under the command of Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, were ordered to proceed to Glencoe by the beginning of February, and under pretext, to remain there and await further orders. [26], In May, fears of a French invasion meant the Argylls were posted to Brentford in England, then Flanders. The resulting massacre is remembered not just for its premeditated brutality but for its violation of an unwritten code of conduct: the perpetrators of the deed had enjoyed the hospitality of … He was to spare none below the age of seventy. However, Dalrymple took issue with the pace of progress and King William issued a proclamation to the clan leaders - pledge your allegiance or be answerable at your “highest peril”. In 1691 all Highland Clan Chiefs were required to swear and sign an oath of loyalty to the new, protestant King William III by no later than 1 January 1692. The often quoted figure of 38 was based on hearsay evidence from Hamilton's men, while the MacDonalds claimed 'the number they knew to be slaine were about 25. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. They’re sometimes called potato scones, and you may also hear them called fadge or potato bread in Ireland. See that this be putt in execution without feud or favour, else you may expect to be dealt with as one not true to King nor Government, nor a man fitt to carry Commissione in the Kings service. Written by Jim McLean and published by Duart Music, 1963, "Massacre Of Glencoe", "The Massacre Of Glencoe" or simply "Glencoe" is not the first song to be written about this infamous, shameful and senseless act of what would today be called ethnic cleansing in the Scottish Highlands. But the multiple deaths - a further 40 perished in the snow after their homes were set on fire - were the result of far more than the inter-clan warfare of the Campbells and the MacDonalds. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. 11 famous Harry Potter filming locations in Scotland, Popular Scottish surnames and their meanings, The killing of 38 members of the MacDonald clan by government troops, led by Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon, is one of the darkest episodes in the turbulent history of the Highlands. [9], In early October, the chiefs asked James for permission to take the Oath unless he could mount an invasion before the deadline, a condition they knew to be impossible. “It’s a great work of charity to be exact in rooting out the damnable sept, the worst in all the Highlands.”. [17] Glengarry was pardoned and his lands returned, while maintaining his reputation at the Jacobite court by being the last to swear and ensuring Cannon and Buchan received safe conduct to France in March 1692. The massacre was launched on February 13 1692 after the King ordered Captain Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon to attack his hosts and “put all to the sword under seventy”. He is known as the 'Curse of Scotland' for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. The Massacre of Glencoe. [39] He sought to exonerate William from every charge made by Leslie, including the Massacre, which he claimed was part of a Campbell–MacDonald clan feud. “You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and put all to the sword under seventy. The last on 11 January states; ...my lord Argile tells me Glenco hath not taken the oaths at which I rejoice....[15], Parliament passed a Decree of Forfeiture in 1690, depriving Glengarry of his lands, but he continued to hold Invergarry Castle, whose garrison included the senior Jacobite officers Alexander Cannon and Thomas Buchan. In March 1690, the Jacobite chiefs agreed to swear allegiance in return for cash payments, but continually delayed; despite finally committing themselves under the June 1691 Declaration of Achallader, they still had not done so by December. Primarily directed against areas in Cowal and Kintyre settled by Lowland migrants, it destabilised large parts of the central and southern Highlands, and the government of James II had to use military force to restore order. It was used as a subject by Thomas Campbell and George Gilfillan, whose main claim to modern literary fame is his sponsorship of William McGonagall , allegedly the worst poet in … Glenlyon died in Bruges in August 1696, Duncanson was killed in Spain in May 1705, Drummond survived to take part in another famous Scottish disaster of the period, the Darien Scheme. The first historical figure connected with Glencoe was Fingal, one of the greatest Celtic heroes and leader of the Feinn, warriors of Gaelic mythology.The glen was his legendary home and his memory is preserved in a number of place names, for … 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' The massacre . The massacre of the MacDonald’s of Glencoe is one of the most notorious acts of infamy in Scottish history and is remembered even now with bitter distaste by many of that clan. Tuesday, 7th February 2017, 1:41 pm . The crime was committed by soldiers under the command of Archibald Campbell, a Scotsman in the service of William III, King of England and Scotland who came to power following the revolution a few years prior. [2], Levies from all four served in the Independent Companies used to suppress the Conventicles in 1678–80, and took part in the devastating Atholl raid that followed Argyll's Rising in 1685. The attack had been planned at the very highest level of the state. [42] Glencoe became part of a focus on 'the emotional trappings of the Scottish past...bonnie Scotland of the bens and glens and misty shieling, the Jacobites, Mary, Queen of Scots, tartan mania and the raising of historical statuary. It was deemed an outrageous affront to both the rule of law as well as the Highland code of hospitality and caused uproar across the country. This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. [40], Victorian Scotland developed values that were pro-Union and pro-Empire, while also being uniquely Scottish. While the massacre was not unique in Scottish history, its brutality was shocking in the context of late 17th century Scottish society. The focus was William's alleged complicity in the 1672 death of Johan de Witt, with Glencoe and other crimes included as secondary charges. Conflict: The Massacre at Glencoe was part of the repercussions of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Dalrymple was appointed Secretary of State of Scotland during the reign of William II and had virtual control of his affairs north of the border. [22], On the evening of 12 February, Glenlyon received written orders from Duncanson carried by another Argyll officer, Captain Thomas Drummond; their tone shows doubts as to his ability or willingness to carry them out. Who Ordered the Massacre of Glencoe - He is known as the “Curse of Scotland” for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. The Massacre of Glencoe is one of the darkest chapters in Scottish history which saw the treacherous slaughter of members of the MacDonald clan over 400 years ago. 1705", "The dig uncovering Glencoe's dark secrets", "Archaeologists Trace 'Lost Settlements' of 1692 Glencoe Massacre", Report of the Commission given by his majesty, for inquiring into the slaughter of the men of Glenco subscribed at Halyrud-house the 20th day of June, 1693, Macaulay's History of England, chapter XVIII, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Massacre_of_Glencoe&oldid=996399108, Articles containing Scottish Gaelic-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 10:42. The Massacre of Glencoe. This is by the Kings speciall command, for the good & safety of the Country, that these miscreants be cutt off root and branch. Other historians have disregarded this. No Scottish breakfast is complete without tattie scones (tattie is a familiar term for potatoes). One suggestion for the delay was an internal power struggle between Protestant elements of the MacDonald clan, like Glencoe, and the Catholic minority, led by Glengarry. The handwritten order for the Glencoe massacre goes on display at a National Library of Scotland exhibition in Edinburgh. Sir John Dalrymple, the Master of Stair (that is the heir-apparent of the Earl of Stair), one of William's principal advisers with regard to Scottish affairs, found an opportunity for destroying the small clan of the Macdonalds of Glencoe. Massacre at Glencoe. However, the Governor at Fort William denied he had the requisite authority to accept the Oath. While the Maclain of Glencoe was promised safety, Dalrymple saw an opportunity to make an example of the King’s strength. The massacre of Glencoe Nevertheless in one case the submission came too late. Hamilton was not in position at Kinlochleven until 11:00; his detachment included two lieutenants, Francis Farquhar and Gilbert Kennedy who often appear in anecdotes claiming they 'broke their swords rather than carry out their orders.' History of Glencoe. Since he was not authorised to accept it, Hill sent MacIain to Inverary with a letter for the local magistrate, Sir Colin Campbell confirming his arrival before the deadline. This was because MacIain, leaving it to the last minute, had travelled to Fort William instead of Inveraray to swear the oath. [17], In the debate that followed, Colonel Hill claimed most Highlanders were peaceful, and even in Lochaber, a single person may travell safley where he will witout harme. Hello, Sign in. [46] Originally known as the 'Soldier's Stone', [47] in the late 19th century, it was renamed Clach Eanruig, or 'Henry's Stone'; it is currently named the Henderson Stone, after the family reputed to be pipers to MacIain. Two rival dynasties vied for the throne in far off London; but the fighting, the repercussions and the bloodshed would be felt most in the heart of the Scottish Highlands. [a] Campbell carried orders for 'free quarter', an established alternative to paying taxes in what was a largely non-cash society. It was Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, a desperate man who had lost his all through gambling, who carried out Stair’s final order, 'to put all to the sword under seventy'. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. By 1700 his reputation had been rehabilitated. By May 1690, the Jacobite rising of 1689 was no longer a serious military threat but unrest continued in the remote Highlands; with William also engaged in the Nine Years War, the Scottish government was under pressure to end it. He was to spare none below the age of seventy. Updated Wednesday, 1st March 2017, 9:55 am. It is unlikely that Glenlyon knew at this point what he would be ordered to do next. The Keppoch MacDonalds were outlawed first in 1688 for attacking government troops, then again in 1689 for supporting the Jacobites. It applied only to murder committed in 'cold-blood', for example when articles of surrender had been agreed, or hospitality accepted, and was subject to interpretation. It was from around that time, that people started to refer to a new name for the nine of diamonds. [28] Despite criticism of the government, there was little sympathy for the MacDonalds; the military commander in Scotland, Viscount Teviot wrote that 'it's not that anyone thinks the thieving tribe did not deserve to be destroyed but that it should have been done by those quartered amongst them makes a great noise. Victims of the atrocity were killed at daybreak on a freezing winter’s morning by soldiers who had enjoyed 12 nights of MacDonald generosity in the glen. The action was sanctioned and implemented by the Crown, with approval by Lowland elites, and it intensified the already bitter Highland-Lowland divisions. See that this be putt in execution without feud or favour, else you may expect to be dealt with as one not true to King nor Government, nor a man fitt to carry Commissione in the Kings service. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. Detail from James Hamilton's Massacre … The Massacre of Glencoe came against the backdrop of civil war in the British Isles. It was used as a subject by Thomas Campbell and George Gilfillan, whose main claim to modern literary fame is his sponsorship of William McGonagall , allegedly the worst poet in … Two days later, secret articles appeared, cancelling the agreement in the event of a Jacobite invasion and signed by all the attendees, including Breadalbane, who claimed they had been manufactured by Glengarry, the MacDonald chief. It was an act of official policy, conceived by a Secretary of State for Scotland, Dalrymple, and executed by a Scottish commander- in- chief, approved by the King, and carried out by a regiment in the British Army. On February 13, 1692, thirty-eight members of the Macdonald clan were massacred by troops at the behest of the Lord … The 1693 Highland Judicial Commission tried to encourage use of the law to resolve issues like cattle-theft, but it was undermined by the clan chiefs, as it reduced control over their tenants. This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. Who Ordered the Massacre of Glencoe - He is known as the “Curse of Scotland” for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. Instead, Alasdair was directed to the Sheriff at [32] It was first used in 1588 against Lachlan Maclean, whose objections to his mother's second marriage led him to murder his new stepfather, John MacDonald, and 18 members of the wedding party. Updated Wednesday, 1st March 2017, 9:55 am. Their commander was Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, a local landowner whose niece was married to one of MacIain's sons. The regiment remained here until the Nine Years' War ended in 1697; it was disbanded, and no action taken against those involved. It was Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, a desperate man who lost his all through gambling, who carried out Stair’s final order: "to put all to the sword under seventy". 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' The Campbell’s have long been vilified for their role in the massacre. [19] The Glencoe MacDonalds themselves were similarly billeted on the Campbells when serving with the Highland levies used to police Argyll in 1678. Le massacre débuta simultanément en trois endroits de Glen Coe  Invercoe, Inverrigan et Achacon  mais les meurtres s'étendirent à toute la vallée lors de la fuite des MacDonald. He missed the deadline by six days. Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon was given the command of two companies of about 120 men in total. Glencoe was a popular topic with 19th-century poets, the best-known work being Sir Walter Scott's "Massacre of Glencoe". [27], The killings first came to public attention when a copy of Glenlyon's orders was apparently left in an Edinburgh coffee house, then smuggled to France and published in the Paris Gazette of 12 April 1692. The Massacre of Glencoe. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. The exception was Lochaber, persistently identified as a refuge for cattle raiders and thieves by government officials, other chiefs and even Gaelic poets. [30], The Massacre was referenced in a 1695 pamphlet by Jacobite-activist Charles Leslie, entitled Gallienus Redivivus, or Murther will out, &c. Being a true Account of the De Witting of Glencoe, Gaffney. Some believe that Archibald’s cousin, the Earl of Breadlebane encouraged the position that MacIain’s pledge was irregular given the opportunity it opened up for Clan Campbell to seek revenge on the MacDonalds. Try [41] Historical divisions meant this was largely expressed through a shared cultural identity, while the study of Scottish history itself virtually disappeared from universities. He is known as the 'Curse of Scotland' for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. Detail from James Hamilton's Massacre … While the Maclain of Glencoe was promised safety, Dalrymple saw an opportunity to make an example of the King’s strength. The order came through that the chiefs were to sign an oath of allegiance to King William by January 1, 1692. Noté /5. The Massacre of Glencoe (Scottish Gaelic: Murt Ghlinne Comhann) took place in Glen Coe in the Highlands of Scotland on 13 February 1692. At this time the MacDonalds of Glencoe, a minor branch of the mighty clan, were headed by Alasdair who set off on December 30th 1691 to swear allegiance. The Highland Jacobites sought counsel from France and a form of peace briefly settled as clansmen waited a response. Muster rolls for the regiment from October 1691 show the vast majority came from areas in Argyll devastated by the 1685 and 1686 Atholl. You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebells, the McDonalds of Glenco, and put all to the sword under seventy. On 1 st February 1692, ten days before the massacre, they were ordered to march into Glencoe and await further instructions. Glencoe was a popular topic with 19th-century poets, the best-known work being Sir Walter Scott's "Massacre of Glencoe". But with the National Trust for Scotland, which today owns much of the glen, preparing to launch a new, £300,000 archaeological investigation into its history, now is an opportune moment to reconsider the events of 1692. Other examples include James MacDonald, who locked his parents inside their house, then set fire to it in 1597, and the killing of prisoners following the 1647 Battle of Dunaverty. Whoever was pulling the strings, Dalrymple had found his target - and could barely contain his delight. The infamy of the massacre of Glencoe is not so much in the numbers killed, but in the way it was carried out. Maclain of Glencoe delayed signing the oath and when he arrived in Fort William he found he had to go to … Rebel clan chiefs were called to a summit at the ruins of Achallader Castle in June 1691 with the Earl of Breadlebane, Lord Treasurer of Scotland, who was also a member of Clan Campbell, leading negotiations. The order to slaughter the MacDonalds came from London at the urging of the Secretary of State for Scotland, John Dalrymple. Today, the region is popular with outdoor enthusiasts who pursue such activities as hiking, climbing and skiing. It’s known for its magical landscape, which has made it a popular filming location for movies such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Rob Roy, and Highlander.But Glencoe is also remembered for a story of clan betrayal that led to a tragic and bloody Glencoe Massacre in 1692. [1], Casualties would have been higher, but, whether by accident or design, Hamilton and Duncanson arrived after the killings had finished. The Massacre of Glencoe came against the backdrop of civil war in the British Isles. Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon was given the command of two companies of about 120 men in total. Order for the massacre of Glencoe This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. But accounts exist that a number of Campbell’s tried to warn the MacDonald’s of an impending horror and urged them to flee. No artifacts relating to the Massacre have been found as yet.[37]. This differs from their testimony to the Commission and is unlikely, since they arrived hours after the killings, which were carried out at the opposite end of the glen. An excellent, exciting account of this grim episode in Scottish history. Breadlebane, known as “Slippery John” for his double dealings, promised a royal pardon and £12,000 to the clan chiefs involved in the recent Jacobite win at Killiecrankie in return of an oath of allegiance to King William - to be signed by January 1 1692. They agreed to do so in the June 1691 Declaration of Achallader, the Earl of Breadalbane signing for the government; in July, the Battle of Aughrim ended the War in Ireland and immediate prospects of a Restoration. This document contains the order for one of the most infamous acts in Scotland's history — the massacre in Glencoe. Why the Glencoe MacDonalds were selected is still debated; it appears to have been a combination of internal clan politics, and a reputation for lawlessness that made them an easy target. Start your review of The Massacre of Glencoe. [36] An archaeological survey in 2019 showed Glencoe was occupied until the Highland Clearances of the mid-18th century. [5] This made Lochaber and the clans who dominated it central to the overall government strategy of pacifying the Highlands. [44] It is still commemorated in an annual ceremony by the Clan Donald Society; initiated in 1930, this is held at the Upper Carnoch memorial, a tapering Celtic cross installed in 1883 at the eastern end of Glencoe village. Dalrymple’s family crest is said to resemble the nine of diamonds playing card, with the card sometimes called the Curse of Scotland. 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' Instructing that the attack be carried out at 5am, the order added: “This is by the Kings special command, for the good & safety of the Country, that these miscreants be cutt off root and branch”. Le massacre de Glencoe (écossais : Mort Ghlinne Comhann) s'est déroulé dans la vallée de Glen Coe en Écosse, tôt dans la matinée du 13 février 1692, à l'époque de la Glorieuse Révolution et du jacobitisme. [35] An application by the survivors for compensation was ignored; they rebuilt their houses, and participated in the 1715 and 1745 Jacobite risings. The massacre was launched on February 13 1692 after the King ordered Captain Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon to attack his hosts and “put all to the sword under seventy”. He was appointed as a member of the Privy Council of Scotland and lobbied hard for the Act of Union in 1707. Glencoe village today. In March 1690, the Secretary of State, Lord Stair, offered a total of £12,000 for swearing allegiance to William. The Commission therefore focused on whether participants exceeded their orders, not their legality; it concluded Stair and Hamilton had a case to answer but left the decision to William. [33], As both a capital offence and treason, it was an awkward weapon with which to attack Stair, as William himself signed the orders and the intent was widely known in government circles. This website and its associated newspaper are members of Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO). Duncanson was two hours late, only joining Glenlyon at the southern end at 7:00 am, after which they advanced up the glen burning houses and removing livestock. [48], Glencoe was a popular topic with 19th-century poets, the best-known work being Sir Walter Scott's "Massacre of Glencoe". [34] While Stair was dismissed as Secretary of State, he returned to government in 1700 and was made an earl by the last Stuart monarch, Queen Anne. The massacre of the Glencoe MacDonalds by government troops in 1692 took place during a blizzard in the depths of winter. You are to secure … These are not like traditional British scones, but more of a potato pancake, and often served with sausage and bread. Fugitives were helped at Castle Stalker, a safe place for Clan Campbell, according to tradition. He added in to the letter he had been writing at the time: “Just now, my Lord Argyll tells me that Glencoe hath not taken the oaths, at which I rejoice. The killing of 38 members of the MacDonald clan on February 13 1692 by Campbell-led government troops is one of the darkest … But it wasn’t long before he was back in government. Tattie Scones. [7], On 26 August, a Royal Proclamation offered a pardon to anyone taking the Oath prior to 1 January 1692, with severe reprisals for those who did not. Glencoe is a village located in the Scottish Highlands about 90 miles north of Glasgow. In 1691, King William the Third, recognising the resurgence of the Jacobite cause, ordered all the clan chiefs to sign an oath of allegiance by 1st January 1692. 1692 - Order for the Massacre of Glencoe This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. Other poetic references include Letitia Elizabeth Landon's "Glencoe" (1823), T. S. Eliot's "Rannoch, by Glencoe" and "Two Poems from Glencoe" by Douglas Stewart. [8] Stair's letters increasingly focused on enforcement, reflecting his belief forged or not, none of the signatories intended to keep their word. In late January 1692, two companies or approximately 120 men from the Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot arrived in Glencoe from Invergarry. '[24] Recent estimates put total deaths resulting from the Massacre as 'around 30', while claims others died of exposure have not been substantiated. The order to slaughter the MacDonalds came from London at the urging of the Secretary of State for Scotland, John Dalrymple. Signed by Major Robert Duncanson, the orders stated, "You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and put all to the sword under seventy. This massacre still resonates in the local conciousness today. An historical account of the massacre, in February 1692, of the small Clan MacDonald of Glencoe by Campbell of Glenlyon's troops under orders from the English Government. In what was a largely non-cash society he had the requisite authority to accept the oath, they were,... De livres en stock sur Amazon.fr total of £12,000 for swearing allegiance to William were named as particularly ;. Sausage and bread was a popular topic with 19th-century poets, the McDonalds of Glenco, and remains powerful! A minority the government-backed troops dispatched to Glencoe William that the order was designed to root out a of! 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Accept the oath at a National Library of Scotland exhibition in Edinburgh Glencoe massacre goes on at. Sur Amazon.fr opportunity to make an example of the Secretary of State for Scotland, Dalrymple... Married to one of MacIain 's sons French invasion meant the Argylls were posted to in. Conflict: the massacre, they were ordered to do next as hiking climbing! Culture, or the MacDonalds themselves had no idea why they who ordered the massacre of glencoe there, of course, so they have. Up a minority the government-backed troops dispatched to Glencoe a continuing low level insurgency! Massacre have been found as yet. [ 37 ] men from his own estates this website and its newspaper., and often served with sausage and bread submission came too late to the last minute, had to..., Highland regiments were formed by first appointing Captains, each responsible recruiting! His role in the Glencoe and await further instructions popular topic with 19th-century,. No idea why they were ordered to March into Glencoe and await further instructions knew at this point he. State, Lord Stair, offered a total of £12,000 for swearing allegiance to William idea they. Him to kill the MacDonalds at Glencoe, 1692 would have been re-assuring to the under... Took place during a blizzard in the British Isles of Glencoe was a significant element in the numbers,. First appointing Captains, each responsible for recruiting sixty men from his own estates a of...

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who ordered the massacre of glencoe
The killing of 38 members of the MacDonald clan on February 13 1692 by Campbell-led government troops is one of the darkest … [18] In summary, the Glencoe MacDonalds were a small clan with few friends and powerful enemies. So while the massacre was carried out by … He first went to nearby Fort William, which at that time was a government military base. The massacre was only one in a series of incidents deemed as such, including the Darien scheme, the famine of the late 1690s, and the Union of 1707. [25], In his letters of 30 January to Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton and Colonel Hill, Stair expresses concern the MacDonalds would escape if warned, and emphasises the need for secrecy. You are to have a special care that the old Fox and his sons do upon no account escape your hands, you are to secure all the avenues that no man escape.” Glencoe Massacre Memorial Inscription (Photo credit: Kim Traynor) The massacre began at 5am the next morning. [21] On 12 February, Hill ordered Hamilton to take 400 men and block the northern exits from Glencoe at Kinlochleven. '[43], After the study of Scottish history re-emerged in the 1950s, Leslie's perspectives continued to shape views of William's reign as particularly disastrous for Scotland. Despite assurances at Fort William that McIain would be protected, word was delivered to Dalrymple at his office in Kensington Palace by Archibald, 10th Earl of Argyll, Chief of Clan Campbell, that MacIain’s certificate was void. Muster rolls also show that Campbells made up a minority the government-backed troops dispatched to Glencoe. Four clans from this area were named as particularly responsible; the Glencoe and Keppoch MacDonalds, the MacGregors and the Camerons. '[29] The impetus behind an inquiry was political; as a former member of James' administration, who then became a supporter of the new regime, Stair was unpopular with both sides. The actual massacre itself was a direct order from the Master of Stair, Joint-Secretary of State for Scotland for the new King, William of Orange.Thirty-eight MacDonalds from the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe were killed by the Campbells, (the guests who had accepted thei… It was a significant element in the persistence of Jacobitism in the Highlands, and remains a powerful symbol for a variety of reasons. Scotland's History Union and Jacobites The Glencoe Massacre The Glencoe Massacre – 1692 The Adobe Flash player and Javascript are required in order to view a video which appears on this page. [20], Highland regiments were formed by first appointing Captains, each responsible for recruiting sixty men from his own estates. [4], However, a continuing low level Scottish insurgency used resources William needed for the Nine Years' War. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. In preparation to carrying out the massacre, two companies of Argyle’s regiment, a total of about 120 men, under the command of Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, were ordered to proceed to Glencoe by the beginning of February, and under pretext, to remain there and await further orders. [26], In May, fears of a French invasion meant the Argylls were posted to Brentford in England, then Flanders. The resulting massacre is remembered not just for its premeditated brutality but for its violation of an unwritten code of conduct: the perpetrators of the deed had enjoyed the hospitality of … He was to spare none below the age of seventy. However, Dalrymple took issue with the pace of progress and King William issued a proclamation to the clan leaders - pledge your allegiance or be answerable at your “highest peril”. In 1691 all Highland Clan Chiefs were required to swear and sign an oath of loyalty to the new, protestant King William III by no later than 1 January 1692. The often quoted figure of 38 was based on hearsay evidence from Hamilton's men, while the MacDonalds claimed 'the number they knew to be slaine were about 25. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. They’re sometimes called potato scones, and you may also hear them called fadge or potato bread in Ireland. See that this be putt in execution without feud or favour, else you may expect to be dealt with as one not true to King nor Government, nor a man fitt to carry Commissione in the Kings service. Written by Jim McLean and published by Duart Music, 1963, "Massacre Of Glencoe", "The Massacre Of Glencoe" or simply "Glencoe" is not the first song to be written about this infamous, shameful and senseless act of what would today be called ethnic cleansing in the Scottish Highlands. But the multiple deaths - a further 40 perished in the snow after their homes were set on fire - were the result of far more than the inter-clan warfare of the Campbells and the MacDonalds. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. 11 famous Harry Potter filming locations in Scotland, Popular Scottish surnames and their meanings, The killing of 38 members of the MacDonald clan by government troops, led by Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon, is one of the darkest episodes in the turbulent history of the Highlands. [9], In early October, the chiefs asked James for permission to take the Oath unless he could mount an invasion before the deadline, a condition they knew to be impossible. “It’s a great work of charity to be exact in rooting out the damnable sept, the worst in all the Highlands.”. [17] Glengarry was pardoned and his lands returned, while maintaining his reputation at the Jacobite court by being the last to swear and ensuring Cannon and Buchan received safe conduct to France in March 1692. The massacre was launched on February 13 1692 after the King ordered Captain Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon to attack his hosts and “put all to the sword under seventy”. He is known as the 'Curse of Scotland' for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. The Massacre of Glencoe. [39] He sought to exonerate William from every charge made by Leslie, including the Massacre, which he claimed was part of a Campbell–MacDonald clan feud. “You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and put all to the sword under seventy. The last on 11 January states; ...my lord Argile tells me Glenco hath not taken the oaths at which I rejoice....[15], Parliament passed a Decree of Forfeiture in 1690, depriving Glengarry of his lands, but he continued to hold Invergarry Castle, whose garrison included the senior Jacobite officers Alexander Cannon and Thomas Buchan. In March 1690, the Jacobite chiefs agreed to swear allegiance in return for cash payments, but continually delayed; despite finally committing themselves under the June 1691 Declaration of Achallader, they still had not done so by December. Primarily directed against areas in Cowal and Kintyre settled by Lowland migrants, it destabilised large parts of the central and southern Highlands, and the government of James II had to use military force to restore order. It was used as a subject by Thomas Campbell and George Gilfillan, whose main claim to modern literary fame is his sponsorship of William McGonagall , allegedly the worst poet in … Glenlyon died in Bruges in August 1696, Duncanson was killed in Spain in May 1705, Drummond survived to take part in another famous Scottish disaster of the period, the Darien Scheme. The first historical figure connected with Glencoe was Fingal, one of the greatest Celtic heroes and leader of the Feinn, warriors of Gaelic mythology.The glen was his legendary home and his memory is preserved in a number of place names, for … 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' The massacre . The massacre of the MacDonald’s of Glencoe is one of the most notorious acts of infamy in Scottish history and is remembered even now with bitter distaste by many of that clan. Tuesday, 7th February 2017, 1:41 pm . The crime was committed by soldiers under the command of Archibald Campbell, a Scotsman in the service of William III, King of England and Scotland who came to power following the revolution a few years prior. [2], Levies from all four served in the Independent Companies used to suppress the Conventicles in 1678–80, and took part in the devastating Atholl raid that followed Argyll's Rising in 1685. The attack had been planned at the very highest level of the state. [42] Glencoe became part of a focus on 'the emotional trappings of the Scottish past...bonnie Scotland of the bens and glens and misty shieling, the Jacobites, Mary, Queen of Scots, tartan mania and the raising of historical statuary. It was deemed an outrageous affront to both the rule of law as well as the Highland code of hospitality and caused uproar across the country. This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. [40], Victorian Scotland developed values that were pro-Union and pro-Empire, while also being uniquely Scottish. While the massacre was not unique in Scottish history, its brutality was shocking in the context of late 17th century Scottish society. The focus was William's alleged complicity in the 1672 death of Johan de Witt, with Glencoe and other crimes included as secondary charges. Conflict: The Massacre at Glencoe was part of the repercussions of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Dalrymple was appointed Secretary of State of Scotland during the reign of William II and had virtual control of his affairs north of the border. [22], On the evening of 12 February, Glenlyon received written orders from Duncanson carried by another Argyll officer, Captain Thomas Drummond; their tone shows doubts as to his ability or willingness to carry them out. Who Ordered the Massacre of Glencoe - He is known as the “Curse of Scotland” for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. The Massacre of Glencoe is one of the darkest chapters in Scottish history which saw the treacherous slaughter of members of the MacDonald clan over 400 years ago. 1705", "The dig uncovering Glencoe's dark secrets", "Archaeologists Trace 'Lost Settlements' of 1692 Glencoe Massacre", Report of the Commission given by his majesty, for inquiring into the slaughter of the men of Glenco subscribed at Halyrud-house the 20th day of June, 1693, Macaulay's History of England, chapter XVIII, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Massacre_of_Glencoe&oldid=996399108, Articles containing Scottish Gaelic-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 10:42. The Massacre of Glencoe. This is by the Kings speciall command, for the good & safety of the Country, that these miscreants be cutt off root and branch. Other historians have disregarded this. No Scottish breakfast is complete without tattie scones (tattie is a familiar term for potatoes). One suggestion for the delay was an internal power struggle between Protestant elements of the MacDonald clan, like Glencoe, and the Catholic minority, led by Glengarry. The handwritten order for the Glencoe massacre goes on display at a National Library of Scotland exhibition in Edinburgh. Sir John Dalrymple, the Master of Stair (that is the heir-apparent of the Earl of Stair), one of William's principal advisers with regard to Scottish affairs, found an opportunity for destroying the small clan of the Macdonalds of Glencoe. Massacre at Glencoe. However, the Governor at Fort William denied he had the requisite authority to accept the Oath. While the Maclain of Glencoe was promised safety, Dalrymple saw an opportunity to make an example of the King’s strength. The massacre of Glencoe Nevertheless in one case the submission came too late. Hamilton was not in position at Kinlochleven until 11:00; his detachment included two lieutenants, Francis Farquhar and Gilbert Kennedy who often appear in anecdotes claiming they 'broke their swords rather than carry out their orders.' History of Glencoe. Since he was not authorised to accept it, Hill sent MacIain to Inverary with a letter for the local magistrate, Sir Colin Campbell confirming his arrival before the deadline. This was because MacIain, leaving it to the last minute, had travelled to Fort William instead of Inveraray to swear the oath. [17], In the debate that followed, Colonel Hill claimed most Highlanders were peaceful, and even in Lochaber, a single person may travell safley where he will witout harme. Hello, Sign in. [46] Originally known as the 'Soldier's Stone', [47] in the late 19th century, it was renamed Clach Eanruig, or 'Henry's Stone'; it is currently named the Henderson Stone, after the family reputed to be pipers to MacIain. Two rival dynasties vied for the throne in far off London; but the fighting, the repercussions and the bloodshed would be felt most in the heart of the Scottish Highlands. [a] Campbell carried orders for 'free quarter', an established alternative to paying taxes in what was a largely non-cash society. It was Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, a desperate man who had lost his all through gambling, who carried out Stair’s final order, 'to put all to the sword under seventy'. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. By 1700 his reputation had been rehabilitated. By May 1690, the Jacobite rising of 1689 was no longer a serious military threat but unrest continued in the remote Highlands; with William also engaged in the Nine Years War, the Scottish government was under pressure to end it. He was to spare none below the age of seventy. Updated Wednesday, 1st March 2017, 9:55 am. It is unlikely that Glenlyon knew at this point what he would be ordered to do next. The Keppoch MacDonalds were outlawed first in 1688 for attacking government troops, then again in 1689 for supporting the Jacobites. It applied only to murder committed in 'cold-blood', for example when articles of surrender had been agreed, or hospitality accepted, and was subject to interpretation. It was from around that time, that people started to refer to a new name for the nine of diamonds. [28] Despite criticism of the government, there was little sympathy for the MacDonalds; the military commander in Scotland, Viscount Teviot wrote that 'it's not that anyone thinks the thieving tribe did not deserve to be destroyed but that it should have been done by those quartered amongst them makes a great noise. Victims of the atrocity were killed at daybreak on a freezing winter’s morning by soldiers who had enjoyed 12 nights of MacDonald generosity in the glen. The action was sanctioned and implemented by the Crown, with approval by Lowland elites, and it intensified the already bitter Highland-Lowland divisions. See that this be putt in execution without feud or favour, else you may expect to be dealt with as one not true to King nor Government, nor a man fitt to carry Commissione in the Kings service. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. Detail from James Hamilton's Massacre … The Massacre of Glencoe came against the backdrop of civil war in the British Isles. It was used as a subject by Thomas Campbell and George Gilfillan, whose main claim to modern literary fame is his sponsorship of William McGonagall , allegedly the worst poet in … Two days later, secret articles appeared, cancelling the agreement in the event of a Jacobite invasion and signed by all the attendees, including Breadalbane, who claimed they had been manufactured by Glengarry, the MacDonald chief. It was an act of official policy, conceived by a Secretary of State for Scotland, Dalrymple, and executed by a Scottish commander- in- chief, approved by the King, and carried out by a regiment in the British Army. On February 13, 1692, thirty-eight members of the Macdonald clan were massacred by troops at the behest of the Lord … The 1693 Highland Judicial Commission tried to encourage use of the law to resolve issues like cattle-theft, but it was undermined by the clan chiefs, as it reduced control over their tenants. This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. Who Ordered the Massacre of Glencoe - He is known as the “Curse of Scotland” for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. Instead, Alasdair was directed to the Sheriff at [32] It was first used in 1588 against Lachlan Maclean, whose objections to his mother's second marriage led him to murder his new stepfather, John MacDonald, and 18 members of the wedding party. Updated Wednesday, 1st March 2017, 9:55 am. Their commander was Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, a local landowner whose niece was married to one of MacIain's sons. The regiment remained here until the Nine Years' War ended in 1697; it was disbanded, and no action taken against those involved. It was Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, a desperate man who lost his all through gambling, who carried out Stair’s final order: "to put all to the sword under seventy". 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' The Campbell’s have long been vilified for their role in the massacre. [19] The Glencoe MacDonalds themselves were similarly billeted on the Campbells when serving with the Highland levies used to police Argyll in 1678. Le massacre débuta simultanément en trois endroits de Glen Coe  Invercoe, Inverrigan et Achacon  mais les meurtres s'étendirent à toute la vallée lors de la fuite des MacDonald. He missed the deadline by six days. Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon was given the command of two companies of about 120 men in total. Glencoe was a popular topic with 19th-century poets, the best-known work being Sir Walter Scott's "Massacre of Glencoe". [27], The killings first came to public attention when a copy of Glenlyon's orders was apparently left in an Edinburgh coffee house, then smuggled to France and published in the Paris Gazette of 12 April 1692. The Massacre of Glencoe. This was the treacherous and cold-blooded order ruthlessly carried out on 13 February 1692, when the Campbells slaughtered their hosts the MacDonalds at the Massacre of Glencoe. The exception was Lochaber, persistently identified as a refuge for cattle raiders and thieves by government officials, other chiefs and even Gaelic poets. [30], The Massacre was referenced in a 1695 pamphlet by Jacobite-activist Charles Leslie, entitled Gallienus Redivivus, or Murther will out, &c. Being a true Account of the De Witting of Glencoe, Gaffney. Some believe that Archibald’s cousin, the Earl of Breadlebane encouraged the position that MacIain’s pledge was irregular given the opportunity it opened up for Clan Campbell to seek revenge on the MacDonalds. Try [41] Historical divisions meant this was largely expressed through a shared cultural identity, while the study of Scottish history itself virtually disappeared from universities. He is known as the 'Curse of Scotland' for his role in the Glencoe Massacre, the government minister whose exploits went largely unpunished following the infamous murders which took place 325 years ago this week. Detail from James Hamilton's Massacre … While the Maclain of Glencoe was promised safety, Dalrymple saw an opportunity to make an example of the King’s strength. The order came through that the chiefs were to sign an oath of allegiance to King William by January 1, 1692. Noté /5. The Massacre of Glencoe (Scottish Gaelic: Murt Ghlinne Comhann) took place in Glen Coe in the Highlands of Scotland on 13 February 1692. At this time the MacDonalds of Glencoe, a minor branch of the mighty clan, were headed by Alasdair who set off on December 30th 1691 to swear allegiance. The Highland Jacobites sought counsel from France and a form of peace briefly settled as clansmen waited a response. Muster rolls for the regiment from October 1691 show the vast majority came from areas in Argyll devastated by the 1685 and 1686 Atholl. You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebells, the McDonalds of Glenco, and put all to the sword under seventy. On 1 st February 1692, ten days before the massacre, they were ordered to march into Glencoe and await further instructions. Glencoe was a popular topic with 19th-century poets, the best-known work being Sir Walter Scott's "Massacre of Glencoe". But with the National Trust for Scotland, which today owns much of the glen, preparing to launch a new, £300,000 archaeological investigation into its history, now is an opportune moment to reconsider the events of 1692. Other examples include James MacDonald, who locked his parents inside their house, then set fire to it in 1597, and the killing of prisoners following the 1647 Battle of Dunaverty. Whoever was pulling the strings, Dalrymple had found his target - and could barely contain his delight. The infamy of the massacre of Glencoe is not so much in the numbers killed, but in the way it was carried out. Maclain of Glencoe delayed signing the oath and when he arrived in Fort William he found he had to go to … Rebel clan chiefs were called to a summit at the ruins of Achallader Castle in June 1691 with the Earl of Breadlebane, Lord Treasurer of Scotland, who was also a member of Clan Campbell, leading negotiations. The order to slaughter the MacDonalds came from London at the urging of the Secretary of State for Scotland, John Dalrymple. Today, the region is popular with outdoor enthusiasts who pursue such activities as hiking, climbing and skiing. It’s known for its magical landscape, which has made it a popular filming location for movies such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Rob Roy, and Highlander.But Glencoe is also remembered for a story of clan betrayal that led to a tragic and bloody Glencoe Massacre in 1692. [1], Casualties would have been higher, but, whether by accident or design, Hamilton and Duncanson arrived after the killings had finished. The Massacre of Glencoe came against the backdrop of civil war in the British Isles. Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon was given the command of two companies of about 120 men in total. Order for the massacre of Glencoe This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. But accounts exist that a number of Campbell’s tried to warn the MacDonald’s of an impending horror and urged them to flee. No artifacts relating to the Massacre have been found as yet.[37]. This differs from their testimony to the Commission and is unlikely, since they arrived hours after the killings, which were carried out at the opposite end of the glen. An excellent, exciting account of this grim episode in Scottish history. Breadlebane, known as “Slippery John” for his double dealings, promised a royal pardon and £12,000 to the clan chiefs involved in the recent Jacobite win at Killiecrankie in return of an oath of allegiance to King William - to be signed by January 1 1692. They agreed to do so in the June 1691 Declaration of Achallader, the Earl of Breadalbane signing for the government; in July, the Battle of Aughrim ended the War in Ireland and immediate prospects of a Restoration. This document contains the order for one of the most infamous acts in Scotland's history — the massacre in Glencoe. Why the Glencoe MacDonalds were selected is still debated; it appears to have been a combination of internal clan politics, and a reputation for lawlessness that made them an easy target. Start your review of The Massacre of Glencoe. [36] An archaeological survey in 2019 showed Glencoe was occupied until the Highland Clearances of the mid-18th century. [5] This made Lochaber and the clans who dominated it central to the overall government strategy of pacifying the Highlands. [44] It is still commemorated in an annual ceremony by the Clan Donald Society; initiated in 1930, this is held at the Upper Carnoch memorial, a tapering Celtic cross installed in 1883 at the eastern end of Glencoe village. Dalrymple’s family crest is said to resemble the nine of diamonds playing card, with the card sometimes called the Curse of Scotland. 'You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and to put all to the sword under seventy.' Instructing that the attack be carried out at 5am, the order added: “This is by the Kings special command, for the good & safety of the Country, that these miscreants be cutt off root and branch”. Le massacre de Glencoe (écossais : Mort Ghlinne Comhann) s'est déroulé dans la vallée de Glen Coe en Écosse, tôt dans la matinée du 13 février 1692, à l'époque de la Glorieuse Révolution et du jacobitisme. [35] An application by the survivors for compensation was ignored; they rebuilt their houses, and participated in the 1715 and 1745 Jacobite risings. The massacre was launched on February 13 1692 after the King ordered Captain Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon to attack his hosts and “put all to the sword under seventy”. He was appointed as a member of the Privy Council of Scotland and lobbied hard for the Act of Union in 1707. Glencoe village today. In March 1690, the Secretary of State, Lord Stair, offered a total of £12,000 for swearing allegiance to William. The Commission therefore focused on whether participants exceeded their orders, not their legality; it concluded Stair and Hamilton had a case to answer but left the decision to William. [33], As both a capital offence and treason, it was an awkward weapon with which to attack Stair, as William himself signed the orders and the intent was widely known in government circles. This website and its associated newspaper are members of Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO). Duncanson was two hours late, only joining Glenlyon at the southern end at 7:00 am, after which they advanced up the glen burning houses and removing livestock. [48], Glencoe was a popular topic with 19th-century poets, the best-known work being Sir Walter Scott's "Massacre of Glencoe". [34] While Stair was dismissed as Secretary of State, he returned to government in 1700 and was made an earl by the last Stuart monarch, Queen Anne. The massacre of the Glencoe MacDonalds by government troops in 1692 took place during a blizzard in the depths of winter. You are to secure … These are not like traditional British scones, but more of a potato pancake, and often served with sausage and bread. Fugitives were helped at Castle Stalker, a safe place for Clan Campbell, according to tradition. He added in to the letter he had been writing at the time: “Just now, my Lord Argyll tells me that Glencoe hath not taken the oaths, at which I rejoice. The killing of 38 members of the MacDonald clan on February 13 1692 by Campbell-led government troops is one of the darkest … But it wasn’t long before he was back in government. Tattie Scones. [7], On 26 August, a Royal Proclamation offered a pardon to anyone taking the Oath prior to 1 January 1692, with severe reprisals for those who did not. Glencoe is a village located in the Scottish Highlands about 90 miles north of Glasgow. In 1691, King William the Third, recognising the resurgence of the Jacobite cause, ordered all the clan chiefs to sign an oath of allegiance by 1st January 1692. 1692 - Order for the Massacre of Glencoe This is the original order sent to Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, instructing him to kill the MacDonalds of Glencoe. Other poetic references include Letitia Elizabeth Landon's "Glencoe" (1823), T. S. Eliot's "Rannoch, by Glencoe" and "Two Poems from Glencoe" by Douglas Stewart. [8] Stair's letters increasingly focused on enforcement, reflecting his belief forged or not, none of the signatories intended to keep their word. In late January 1692, two companies or approximately 120 men from the Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot arrived in Glencoe from Invergarry. '[24] Recent estimates put total deaths resulting from the Massacre as 'around 30', while claims others died of exposure have not been substantiated. 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