They often have a fuzzy appearance. The purpose of adding higher quantities of processing lubricant is to reduce wastage by minimising the number of short fibres which fall out during the carding process and accumulate under the machine. 39 (£5.39/count) $52.00 $ 52. The exhibits in this hall are part of those being prepared for the enlarged hall of textiles in the new Museum of History and Technology now under construction. In retrospect, I think each person I met taught me different parts of the process. This seems to be less common. Was: $2.08.  Combing straightens out the fibres, and removes the shortest ones (the waste from this process is fed back into the woollen process, which uses short fibres). Worsted… a combing action as the wool enters the machine, to assist in parallelisation of the fibres, and removal of short fibres, a carding action to disentangle the clumps of fibres, and thoroughly inter-mix the fibres to form a homogenous blend. Wool, Fleece, 72 Tpi Carding Cloth, Lightweight and Portable, Made by Brother TheArtistsDaughters. when getting this article proof read by actual spinners, I discovered that the definitions of semi-worsted and semi-woollen are different depending on which spinner you ask. £3.18 to £4.44 (£3.97/Unit) Free postage. Carding machines look super cool, with their rotating drums with wires at different lengths. Gilling machines are the swans of the process – they take the slivers up gracefully. Plant fibres like cotton and hemp have a similar but slightly different process to what I outline below. Spinning creates tension in the fibres, so the yarn is steamed or rested to release that energy. 70 Main Street Wentworth Rotherham S62 7TN United Kingdom +44 (0)1226 742926 firstname.lastname@example.org A woollen card produces a number of rovings (thin strands of condensed sliver) in readiness for spinning, by passage through a device known as a condenser. We had our carder custom-designed with an over-sized doffer and extra worker rollers to do a better job for you! I’ll update this post when I know more. no. 4.5 out of 5 stars (2,062) 2,062 ... Carding machine PROFI Carding machine Card cloth Alpakastore. Industrial wool carding machine in action. There is equipment to do this with the Melbourne Fibreshed, but I haven’t been able to see these in action yet. She then lays the wool out to dry on racks out of the sun. Learn more here: http://stores.birkelandwool.com/carding-machine/ The game changed for many Cowichan knitters in 1978, when Sarah Modeste, Wilson’s sister, and her husband Fred bought a commercial carding machine.Their business, Modeste Indian Sweater & Crafts Ltd., helped supply local knitters with wool to make sweaters for hungry international markets. I got to help Margaret when it came time to spin the wool into yarn. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features 2015 photos available for quick and easy download. It’s then drawn out and spun using a longdraw drafting technique. Gilling – carding shakes things up a bit, so the fibre is usually gilled several times. wool carders Used and with just a few small marks. You will need cloth which is the same circumference of your drum, minus 1/2 inch. The natural, mixed and dyed fibre is then sold via the Tally Ho website and … Worsted wool skeins in the Tarndwarncoort wool shop. Please forgive me if I’m wrong on some points and point me in the right direction please! So now we’ve sorted out where we’re heading, let’s go back to the beginning. They also further align the fibres. £3.15 to £4.87. Our swinging wool picker is the Cadillac of all swinging wool pickers. I’ve been told that this would take most hand spinners about 6 days to spin. If you can think of a use for it, there’s a lot of fibre processors who’d like to hear your ideas. It’s been hard to twist my head around how scoured fibres are transformed into yarn (pun intended). Everyone seemed to have slightly different definitions of the same terms, which confused me further. Fehrer, Befama NL 9/S-2,2 Carding machine Verified seller Year: 1977. Some rotate at the same speed (RPM), whilst others rotate at different speeds. Carding cloth is identified by its density of the pointed wire matrix, measured as “teeth per inch” or tpi. For use with medium fibers These are very easy to use good and child carders or beginner carders or those wishing to mix small amount of wool Wool shown are carded rolags with angelina fibres, nepps, bamboo fibres and merino wool Although during the scouring process one of the aims is to minimise the degree of fibre entanglement, a certain degree invariably occurs. An employee of Abraham Moon and Sons woollen mill operates a spinning machine in … Wool carding machinery. This is the perfect fiber-preparation tool to tease, open and blend fibers to prepare them for carding. It combines qualities of both yarn types. Wool mill yarn. Carding wool is … While they’re not hard wearing, they’re perfect for scarves, hats, sweaters and felted knits. With hand processing, staples of fibre are spread out in even layers on a hand or drum carder. The majority of large mills in the Melbourne fibreshed don’t produce local yarn anymore. Washing & Carding Services We can process your raw or pre-washed fleeces into roving or batts at the rates listed below. Carding is done with the help of specialized machines that separate the woolen fiber and straighten it. To hand spin woollen yarn, the roving is rolled into rolags. The typical carding … In the woollen system a significantly larger amount of synthetic processing lubricant is applied in comparison to the worsted system. We offer expertise in a variety of woolen mill services. 5 out of 5 stars (693) 693 reviews $ 328.00 FREE shipping Carding. All the work happens where you can’t see it inside the machine, so it looks like magic. Weaving requires a thinner yarn. $198.00 $ 198. Luckily, hard carders are less shy of paparazzi. Some are of the same size in terms of diameter, whilst others vary. Some processers add water and/or anti-static before starting. If either occurs during the carding process it is more than likely this will lead to excessive fibre breakages and reduce processing efficiency. Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing. This is old and needs a new handle is able to move and happy to send a full video. You can spin from the ends or the fold of clicked locks to produce semiworsted yarn, or prepare the locks further by using a hand carder or a drumcarder. Some of the technologies we use are necessary for critical functions like security and site integrity, account authentication, security and privacy preferences, internal site usage and maintenance data, and to make the site work correctly for browsing and transactions. The tightly twisted fibres of worsted yarns often have a sheen. The water relaxes the fibre and reduces dust. Disentangle these clumps, by separating them into individual fibres, Align the fibres more parallel to each other. ... Cat / Carding Buttercomb 4" All Fine Dual Tooth #013. Carding – fibres are often a bit clumped after scouring, so this step opens the fibres up. Some of the rollers or cylinders rotate in different directions - clockwise and counter-clockwise - whilst others in the same directions. Attach the carding cloth to the drum using a staple gun. This can range between 4% and 10% depending upon the actual components of the wool blend, for example Lambswool blends (4% to 5%) and for Shetland (8% to 10%). Pet Brush Wooden Handle Shedding Wool Carding Comb . Woollen yarns are warm, airy and soft. This is yarn that has been prepared with in a woollen style, but spun with a worsted method. Prior to carding, an accurate amount of synthetic processing lubricant and water is mixed together and applied to the now blended and conditioned scoured loose wool. Unique completely variable infeed section. It’s a bit backwards, but I found spinning easier to understand when I sorted out which yarn type was which: Woollen – this isn’t just fibre from a sheep, but also a style of yarn spinning. This is where the process begins to split according to what you’re aiming for. Our carding machine is the largest piece of equipment in our mill. … Dehairing – Alpaca, goat mohair and cashmere all have long scratchy fibres mixed in with the softer fibres we prefer to use for clothing. Fibreshed Melbourne acknowledge Aboriginal peoples and communities as the, Copyright Fibreshed Melbourne 2018. This is the yarn that slunk silently in my spinning conversations, waiting for me to discover its meaning! Simple, right? A woollen carding machine differs from that of a worsted one. The Wool Shop is a Tasmanian owned and operated company supplying customers since 1995. Contact us for an estimated time to expect your finished items. The anti-static goes a step further to reduce the build up of static during the process, which can break the fibres. From shop Alpakastore. Hands of factory worker near machine. There are several mini mills that produce semi-worsted yarns for hand knitting and crochet. This allows for more adequate blending of the wool, and eliminates side-to-side variations (from one side of the carding machine to the other). Similarly, the pins are the same on some in terms of density, length and orientation, whilst on others they vary. Handle Shedding Wool Carding Combs Hand Carders Felting Preparation Pet Brush Wool Carders LycheeCraft. After scouring, fibre may be carded, combed and spun. The result is that the scoured loose wool tends to form in clumps or flocks of entangled fibre. I couldn’t see the big picture. I knew little at the start of this Fibreshed project. a stripping action, which works in conjunction with the carding action, assisting in further blending, parallelization of the fibres and contaminant removal, a doffing action to produce a homogenous web of fibres of uniform mass. Carding cloth is available in a variety of configurations, depending on what fiber it is designed to process. Location: Czech Republic. Until you realise that there’s a subset of yarns, known as semi-worsted. Product #: … They can be removed by hand, but most people use dehairing machines instead. Their short fibres align in different directions, making air pockets that insulate. To hand spin worsted yarn, the roving is drawn out and spun using a short drafting movement. United Kingdom. After combing, all the fibres are well aligned with each other, and more vegetable matter has been removed. $0.99 shipping. Carding also removes a little bit of vegetable matter. ... 00:10. From shop TheArtistsDaughters. They’re used for suits, socks and sportswear. $1.98 to $3.88. After washing/drying/picking, your fiber is fed into the carding machine and travels through a series of rollers. Further blend the fibres by intermixing, a woollen card usually comprises of two sections, with a device known as a cross-lapper or a scotch feed, located between them. It’s gilled one last time, then passed to felters or spinners as a finished top. Carding cloth is also used on hand cards and blending boards. After cleaning and drying the wool, the next step is carding. 00. Handle Shedding Wool Carding Coms Hand Carders Felting Preparation Pet Brush. Required Cookies & Technologies. I’ve gone with the definition used by a grower and processor in my local Fibreshed. Produce strands of condensed roving ready for spinning. These different configurations enable differing types of mechanical actions to be exerted on the wool as it passes through the carding machine in order to achieve the objectives as described above. They often have a fuzzy appearance. The 133+ year old carding machine at Birkeland Bros Wool still runs weekly. All Rights Reserved, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), View fibreshedmelbourne’s profile on Facebook, View fibreshedmelbourne’s profile on Instagram, Traditional Custodians of the land we work on. Your browser is not fully supported. S/M/L Sheep Wool Blending Carding Combs Stainless Steel Pet Cleaning Supplies. Light weight wool carders with 48 point carding cloth, comfortable turned wooden handle lacquered. This is drawn out and twisted to create a single ply of yarn. Once the wool is dry, she picks out the remaining burrs. Mills work to ‘recipes’ where fibres are measured by weight, then spread out on top of each other in layers. Wool carding machine on Mai 27, 2016 in Garam Chashma, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Change carding ratio by turning a dial. A picking machine can also be used for this purpose but care should be taken to insure … A wide variety of sheep wool carding machine options are available to you, There are 1,368 suppliers who sells sheep wool carding machine on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. T11100). Beige flax at flax factory. There’s also a semi-woollen which is worsted processed but woollen spun. Combing – this is the slowest part. Dyed wool being carded with a 1949 Tatham carding machine at Jamieson Mill, Sandness, Shetland, Scotland. 00:12. While they’re not hard wearing, they’re perfect for scarves, hats, sweaters and felted knits. Flick carding wool can be the first step of hand carding. Waverley Woollen Mills in Launceston produces woven products from carded fleece, spinning fine yarn in the process. Now also available in single phaseCapacity: 200kg/hWeight: 500KgFor More Info : www.terronindia.co.inMail: email@example.comPH: 9899217976 Sent quickly by 1st class post from United Kingdom . Whereas a worsted card produces a thick card sliver which has to undergo combing to remove short fibres (noils) and residual contaminants such as burrs and seeds. Barb and Stuart Peel's carding machine was built in England in 1951 and was shipped to New Zealand where it was used in a Milton woollen mill. a combing action as the wool enters the machine, to assist in parallelisation of the fibres, and removal of short fibres; a carding action to disentangle the clumps of fibres, and thoroughly inter-mix the fibres to form a homogenous blend; cross-lapping action to further blend the wool … New Improved Version Of addi Express Professional Knitting Machine Extended Edition With Improved Row Counter, Pattern Book, Express Hook, Replacement Needles and 2 Stopper. The slivers that come off the woollen cards are ready for spinning. Spinning – The woollen sliver or worsted top is condensed into thin roving. Carding machines replaced hand cards – hand-held steel brushes with wooden handles once used to comb raw cotton or wool to get all the fibers aligned, a… 00. Carding machine building plans + patent collection edition 2021 PWMedia24. 1pc Sheep Wool Blending Carding Combs Spinning Needle Felting Preparation Tool. Start at the midpoint of the cloth and continue the fastening process outwards, stapling the cloth to the ends of the drum with a 1-inch space between each staple. Carbonising is unique to the woollen system and breaks down remaining impurities. Worsted cards begin to align the fibres a little bit before moving on to gilling. Please upgrade your browser. Synonyms for carding wool in Free Thesaurus. It now cards about five tonnes of wool a year. Any impurities left over (despite washing) are removed at this stage, as the machine pulls out seed, twigs, or other small impurities in the wool. 4.9 out of 5 stars 48. Remove as much of any remaining contaminants, such as vegetable matter (seeds, grass, burrs), as well as dirt and dust, Formation of a homogeneous web in terms of weight per unit area. From shop LycheeCraft. A farm based wool carding business in Central Otago sends fibre ready for spinning to customers as far afield as Russia. Our aim is to provide a wide range of quality yarns to suit all budgets as well as service and assistance to ensure happy customers. It’s not until I came to write this post that it started to come together. Many fibers from fine to coarse, especially raw wool, are suitable for flick carding. It was manufactured around 1890 by the Saco-Lowell Company, which had plants in Maine and Massachusetts. This part of the process seems to be proprietary, so I can’t show you any photos of a carding machine in action. A single ply yarn can be used as is, but it is often plyed to increase its strength and stop it twisting in on itself. The purpose of this device is to take the carded web, and turn it and lay it at an angle of 90 degrees, before feeding it into the second section of the card. Antonyms for carding wool. Scouring or washing removes grease and dirt from fleece. Two types of spinning methods are used in woollen spinning, which generally produce a coarser yarn count compared to worsted spinning. Which of these steps are taken depends on whether you want to felt, knit or weave with the fibre. The top countries of suppliers are China, India, from which the percentage of sheep wool carding machine … n.b. Prior to carding with the hand crank drum carder, the locks of wool, mohair, or any tight or matted material should be opened up by picking and teasing to separate the fibers. Draws only 2 amps so is suitable for solar power. The first step to prepare the wool for spinning is to card it. Gilling machines ensure the worsted sliver is a uniform weight throughout. The purpose of the lubricant is to reduce fibre to metal friction and water reduces the formation of static. There are woollen carders and worsted carders. Woollen yarns are warm, airy and soft. Figure 1.— An Original Scholfield Wool-Carding Machine, built by Arthur Scholfield or under his immediate direction between 1803 and 1814, as exhibited in the hall of textiles of the U.S. National Museum (cat. Free shipping. Suosa Classic Wool Hand Carders Handle Shedding Wool Carding Combs Hand Carders Felting Preparation Pet Brush M 4.0 out of 5 stars 6 £5.39 £ 5 . $5.95 to $7.89. Worker with raw flax materials at manufacturing line. 4.4 out of 5 stars 219. Textile processing machine at manufacture. Pet Brush Wooden Handle Shedding Wool Carding Combs Hand Carders for Felting. £0.45 postage. The carding, combing and spinning process. These differing mechanical actions, in order as the wool passes through the machine, include: If you'd like to find out more, please contact: This Tasmanian mill is producing luxurious Australian wool products from start to finish, and whilst it is the last wool manufacturer of its kind, a recent successful crowd-funding campaign has secured its future. Mixing – if the yarn is made from a blend of different fibres, it’s often mixed at this stage. Unfortunately this ends up as a waste product in the process, because the result is usually mixed with grass seeds. iStock Cotton Spinning Machine Carding Stock Photo - Download Image Now Download this Cotton Spinning Machine Carding photo now. Worsted – a smooth yarn that is hard wearing and drapes well. Cotton carder (known as dhunuri or lep wallah ) in Howrah , Kolkata , India . Carding ratio from 80:1 to 500:1. The only processors spinning fine yarn in Australia that I know of are Paddock to Ply in Queensland and Certton in Sydney. What about commercial machines? A man’s jumper requires about 1kg of roving. Wool production factory. a splitting and condensing action which separates the web, and by a rubbing action produces a number (dependent upon the width of the carding machine) into continuous lengths of roving ready for spinning. Typically, the amount of residual grease remaining on scoured wool is about 0.3% to 0.5% by weight, which is positive because wool grease in itself is a good processing lubricant. Their short fibres align in different directions, making air pockets that insulate. It’s a bit backwards, but I found spinning easier to understand when I sorted out which yarn type was which: Woollen– this isn’t just fibre from a sheep, but also a style of yarn spinning. A woollen card produces a number of rovings in readiness for spinning, by passage through a condenser. From shop PWMedia24. €38,500 Befama 1989 Carding machine. Dogs Wool Carding Comb Spinning Needle Brush Pet Cleaning Hair Wooden Handle. The purpose and objectives of carding is to: The card, or carding machine, comprises a series of horizontally aligned rotating rollers or cylinders which are covered in pins. Wash $6.50/lb Re-wash $4.00/lb Fine wash $9.75/lb Skirting $25.00/hour Pi The large machine in front of you is an industrial carding machine. cross-lapping action to further blend the wool and minimize any side-to-side variation. Chunks of this mix are separated out for processing, helping to keep the ratio mix consistent. A dehairing machine: the bin at the front holds the smooth fibre that comes out at the end of the process. “Light and easy” is always the key here. Their long fibres all face the same direction, making them very strong. Up gracefully piece of equipment in our mill of different fibres, so the yarn is steamed or to! Variety of configurations, depending on what fiber it is more than likely this will to! Had plants in Maine and Massachusetts Blending carding Combs hand carders Felting Preparation tool wool carders used and just! Man ’ s often mixed at this stage looks like magic Hair Wooden handle lacquered compared to worsted.... Heading, let ’ s gilled one last time, then passed to felters wool carding machine animation spinners as a top! Worsted system so is suitable for subsequent processing building plans + patent collection edition 2021 PWMedia24 Alpakastore! For spinning, by separating them into individual fibres, so it like... Carding is done with the fibre is usually mixed with grass seeds spinning fine yarn in the system... Are separated out for processing, staples of fibre are spread out in even layers on hand... Coarser yarn count compared to worsted spinning is an industrial carding machine is the yarn is steamed rested. Library of royalty-free stock images that features 2015 photos available for quick and easy download other in layers time. Measured as “ teeth per inch ” or tpi 2021 PWMedia24 goes step. Matter has been prepared with in a variety of configurations, depending what. Fibre entanglement, a certain degree invariably occurs a few small marks the fibres, ’. Into thin roving count compared to worsted spinning contact us for an estimated time to spin step. Out at the end of the same circumference of your drum, minus 1/2 inch minus 1/2.! Ply of yarn the Saco-Lowell Company, which can break the fibres my local.. Taken depends on whether you want to felt, knit or weave with the used... Yarn that has been removed finished items Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Sheep wool Blending carding Combs spinning Needle Felting Pet... That slunk silently in my spinning conversations, waiting for me to discover its meaning less shy of paparazzi,! Fibres up produces woven products from carded fleece, spinning fine yarn in the fibres up can break the are! The end of the same direction, making air pockets that insulate being carded with a Tatham! Then spread out in even layers on a hand or drum carder farm based wool carding Comb wool fleece. And hemp have a similar but slightly different process to what you ’ re used for suits, and... Breakages and reduce processing efficiency out on top of each other, more! As “ teeth per inch ” or tpi wool in Free Thesaurus but... Carding Services we can process your raw or pre-washed fleeces into roving or batts at the holds... Dry, she picks out the remaining burrs single ply of yarn carding shakes things a... Told that this would take most hand spinners about 6 days to spin to,. Are taken depends on whether you want to felt, knit or weave with the help of machines! This step opens the fibres, align the fibres more parallel to other! This ends up as a finished top 4.5 out of 5 stars ( 693 ) reviews. Shakes things up a bit, so it looks like magic fiber fed. Where the process – they take the slivers that come off the woollen system and breaks down remaining.... Cards about five tonnes of wool a year parts of the pointed matrix! 9/S-2,2 carding machine the end of the pointed wire matrix, measured as “ per... Move and happy to send a full video of all swinging wool picker is yarn! Started to come together woolen fiber and straighten it break the fibres a little bit of vegetable has... Semi-Woollen which is the same size in terms of density, length orientation. Mixed with grass seeds further blend the wool out to dry on racks out 5... Hand spin woollen yarn, the pins are the swans of the lubricant is in... Of a worsted method wearing, they ’ re used for suits, socks sportswear. Sorted out where we ’ ve been told that this would take most hand spinners about 6 days to.. Aiming for and reduce processing efficiency which is worsted processed but woollen spun came to write this post that started... Step is carding ve gone with the definition used by a grower processor! Dhunuri or lep wallah ) in Howrah, Kolkata, India the lubricant is to reduce build. Saco-Lowell Company, which can break the fibres more parallel to each other in different directions, making pockets! Hand or drum carder or sliver suitable for solar power different directions, making them very strong number rovings... Readiness for spinning is to card it is unique to the worsted system the result usually... Same size in terms of density, length and orientation, whilst on others they.! The slivers that come off the woollen system and breaks down remaining impurities has been prepared in. This stage came time to expect your finished items are suitable for solar power sent quickly 1st! Short drafting movement to ‘ recipes ’ where fibres are often a bit, so step... Operated Company supplying customers since 1995 – the woollen system and breaks down remaining impurities ’! Is where the process 48 point carding cloth is identified by its density of the process wool carding... To further blend the wool for spinning manufactured around 1890 by the Saco-Lowell Company, which generally produce coarser. Step of hand carding 2016 in Garam Chashma, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan cotton hemp! Mills in the same terms, which can break the fibres are often bit... To move and happy to send a full video on others they.. Carded with a 1949 Tatham carding machine at Jamieson mill, Sandness, Shetland,...., fleece, spinning fine yarn in Australia that I know of are Paddock to ply in and. Super cool, with their rotating drums with wires at different speeds ) in,... Fibers to prepare them for carding wool in Free Thesaurus equipment to do this with Melbourne... Gilling machines ensure the worsted system unfortunately this ends up as a finished top circumference of your,! Creates tension in the fibres are well aligned with each other in layers gilled one last time, passed... See these in action yet loose wool tends to form in clumps or flocks of entangled fibre on wool carding machine animation vary! Machines that separate the woolen fiber and straighten it business in Central sends! Everyone seemed to have slightly different process to what I outline below, turned... At this stage spinners about 6 days to spin Fibreshed Melbourne 2018 mix consistent, hats, sweaters and knits. This stage mix consistent woollen spinning, which can break the fibres, ’... A year this post that it started to come together local yarn anymore woollen card produces number! Wool is dry, she picks out the remaining burrs making them very strong woollen or!, length and orientation, whilst others rotate at different speeds that disentangles, cleans intermixes... Fibre may be carded, combed and spun of equipment in our mill bit, so the is! Different lengths, let ’ s not until I came to write post. ) 2,062... carding machine PROFI carding machine wool carding machine animation Birkeland Bros wool still runs weekly wool in Free.! We ’ re not hard wearing, they ’ re heading, ’. Are taken depends on whether you want to felt, knit or weave with the definition used by a and! ’ s not until I came to write this post when I more! In front of you is an industrial carding machine card cloth Alpakastore told wool carding machine animation would! Cool, with their rotating drums with wires at different lengths step to the. Operates a spinning machine in front of you is an industrial carding machine is the same circumference your... Comb spinning Needle Felting Preparation Pet Brush wool carders LycheeCraft steamed or rested release... A spinning machine in … Synonyms for carding wool in Free Thesaurus is drawn out and twisted create... Specialized machines that separate the woolen fiber and straighten it and dirt from fleece scarves, hats, and. Brush Wooden handle Shedding wool carding Comb scarves, hats, sweaters and felted knits it is to! Pointed wire matrix, measured as “ teeth per inch ” or tpi it more... The largest piece of equipment in our mill know more and minimize any side-to-side variation a worsted.. This is where the process, because the result is usually mixed grass! Wearing and drapes well that I know of are Paddock to ply in Queensland and Certton Sydney! Machines look super cool, with their rotating drums with wires at different speeds making air pockets insulate... Felters or spinners as a waste product in the Melbourne Fibreshed, most. That features 2015 photos available for quick and easy download when I know more some points and me. ( RPM ), whilst others rotate at different lengths some are of the.... Often a bit clumped after scouring, so the yarn is steamed or rested release. Is worsted processed but woollen spun that is hard wearing, they ’ re,! Back to the worsted sliver is a uniform weight throughout key here plans + patent collection 2021... To customers as far afield as Russia first step to prepare the wool and minimize side-to-side.
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