4#J�`�����{�=��Ä%���w�������q�����߭��ϫ�������A������������}};���[�3����tŞ����ٳ�n�����j��m����������'��{�������=�v����������x���VfI����u�5�f��R�_��E��B4߄6�e���_U����.L���^˒�ȂW����5{>��p��s�,|��&>gȺ;�uG��+�*�����u�!�Q6F�{� kx��ɎI�v���D�.�W��[�sfB���|떼��,�B���1N��t�n�t�NBW��e{^vL��<>~���w�������n��\ʣ:/���t]�9lxm�@�:>�K��|��yz~��*��eΐ#��b��S���Jm�x�=����Qlp�C! O’Donovan (1995: 41) goes as far as suggesting that “there is probably no native-born African who is not aware of the existence of God”. General Overviews. (16) Each one is aware of all the elements of religion and worship. 4 0 obj The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. It resides in the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind. In African Religion systems, there are traditional pharmacologists who are specialists in identifying different problems and medicines, and this also includes veterinary medicines. Ray says, “It is true that that religion is neither an African word nor an indigenous concept.” Because the word is absent from the vernacular languages, scholars use the term to refer to something that Africans in a traditional setting do not recognize or experience. <> We find it in the oral culture of proverbs, ritual formulas, prayers, creedal formulations, and … OLUPONA: If we lose traditional African religions, we would also lose or continue to seriously undermine the African practice of rites of passage such as the much cherished age-grade initiations, which have for so long integrated and bought Africans together under a common understanding, or worldview. Diverse traditional beliefs and practices of African people, Encyclopedia of African Religion (Sage, 2009). 2 0 obj :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. /ProcSet 46 0 R While some traditions have a supreme being (next to other deities), others have not. With African Traditional Religions you must be much more careful about speaking about belief systems in the same way, because Africans will actually tolerate quite a wide variety of beliefs as long as it supports the same rituals or certain rituals or ritualistic explanations of why this is being done or why this is being believed. To efficiently study the African Traditional Religion (ATR), one must also study the people who practice this religion. O. Imasogie, African Traditional Religion Ibadan (Nigeria : UPL 1982) 56. The situation is, however, not the same in Africa. Apart from the Jewish religion, there are diversity of religious expression that has developed around the world over the past 6000 years. 4. African Traditional Religion: A Definition (1973), Omosade Awolalu in Yoruba Belief and Sacrificial Rites and John Mbiti in The Concept of God in Africa (1970) are a few examples of postcolonial scholars of religion who have resisted and denounced colonial idea that Africans do not know God. "African Religions and Philosophy" is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. Loosely, it encompasses all African beliefs and practices that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic. Emefie Ikenga - Metuh, African Religions in Western Conceptual Schemes: The Problem of Interpretation (Studies in lgbo Religion) 2nd ed. stream Umewaen: Journal of Benin & Edoid Studies: Osweego, NY. The various divinities that are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Supreme Being. It is most difficult to properly understand a religion if you do not know it’s history. [39], For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir (the Star of Sirius). 217. Person and Community in African Traditional Thought that the individual comes to see himself as man, and it is by first knowing this community as a stubborn perduring fact of the psychophysical world that the individual also comes to know himself as a durable, more or less permanent, fact of this world . There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. The religion of the Yoruba is finding roots in the Islands of the Caribbean and portions of Central and South America. Olupona rejects the western/islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the complex African traditions and are simplistic. 1 0 obj In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. Therefore, in African traditional set up, religion is almost synonymous with culture. This theological concept in traditional religions has a great influence upon how traditional Africans define the role and function of the Supreme Being, lesser beings, divinities and ancestors in an African community. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti: The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture. [8][9], Although the majority of Africans today are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people often combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs ... many basic similarities in the religious systems—everywhere there is the concept of God (called ... 9 C. Bouquet, Man and Deity, Heffer, Cambridge, 1933, p.106. There is no demarcation between them. Mbaya asserts, "Traditional Africa does possess a coherent system of human rights, but the philosophy underlying that system differs from that which inspired [in France] the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, and courageous. Virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. [21][22] New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world. Keywords: Sexual relationship; African Traditional culture; Cultural globalization; Sacredness; Taboos Introduction From According to him, the belief in spirits and ancestors is the most important element of African religions. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. This is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. African Traditional Religion is not essentially idolatrous, but it has a tendency to become so if the cult and the symbols of the divinities are so emphasized as to exclude the Supreme Being. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. 3 0 obj Man is however religious by nature, “Homo Religiosus”. The most significant similarity between the African God and the Biblical God is the fundamental belief in a deity. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, practiced by several Bantu ethnic groups. Points of Contrast between African Traditional Religion and Christianity God The understanding of God normally needs some refining when one comes from African Traditional Religion to be a Christian. In this paper, we shall examine the African world view in order to locate the role of women in the traditional religion. To recover what got lost in the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings. Introduction. The S… 08��`DvG�њ;J��(E�Ɣhe۪R(��W���d}[3��m#>7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8� D:�ڳ�u. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. Some African Religions even distinguish more than one spiritual essence residing within a person. ��=N��#�k�Z�� pOX�v�mkV�] �I�cE�����/A+�"Z�aE����仾s���a�7�$������!����ID suLD� Google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) Sc i., 2010, 1(2): 209-218 . It is unavoidable in human interaction. [1][7], Adherents of traditional religions in sub-Saharan Africa are distributed among 43 countries and are estimated to number over 100 million. 5. [17] Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. According to Clemmont E. Vontress, the various religious traditions of Africa are united by a basic Animism. They do not need to put them down in scripture or in texts or as tenets. Cf. Meru is located at the eastern part of Mount Kenya. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. That is, African traditional religion or African traditional religions (Mbiti 1969, 1–2; Idowu 1973, 103; Booth 1977, 3; Ikenga-Metu 1987, 19; Alolo 2007; Ejizu n.d). "African Religions and Philosophy" is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. <> Monotheism does not reflect the multiplicity of ways that the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, and spirit beings. The term “African Traditional Religion” is used in two complementary senses. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Concept Clarified It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the words Religion and Value before exploring the extensive area of Influence of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion/Value Systems. Among Niger–Congo-speakers is a belief in a creator God, force or higher deity, which is considered by some to be a widespread and ancient feature of Niger-Congo-cultures,[19][20][21] along with other more specialized deities, ancestor spirits, territorial spirits, and beings, as well as evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits, and priests of territorial spirits. Sections: 1) Preamble; 2) Concepts of God according to the three religions (African traditional religion - Christianity - Islam); 3) Contrastive analysis of the concepts of God (The existence of God - Who is God? Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Emi (meaning "breath"), is a vital force that keeps man alive. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 15:48. The essential role of Chi concept is seen in the Igbo While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. The symbol can be found throughout Ghana. ATR is the original religious belief and practice of the Africans. Religion, which gives the African morality, is part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African life. Am. This list is limited to a few well-known traditions. [18], Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. I have opted to not include the concept of transcendence under similarities for I believe it to be an area where African theologians have fundamentally misrepresented African religion, by “‘baptising’ the data in order to project a traditional religion that is compatible with Christianity” (Bowers, 2002: 118). [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. In this second edition, Dr Mbiti has updated his material to include the involvement of women in religion, and the potential unity to be found in what was once thought to be a mass of quite separate religions. Raleigh, NC: SI. Mgmt. Comparative Study of the Concept of Priesthood in Igbo Traditional Religion and Catholic Priesthood. CONCEPT OF GOD IN AFRICA. In most African traditional cultures, there seem to be no distinction between man and the rest of creation. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. Rubinga, Paluku (1986), ‘The Concept of God as Father in the Bible & in African Religion’ in Benson & Gitari (1986), pp. Religion is elusive in nature and this makes it difficult to have one universally accepted definition of religion. People could gain knowledge of it through different ways but primarily from their experience. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. "Kings, Magic & Medicine". 98 – 118. He further maintains that African culture has much in common with It does not exist in a vacuum or up there in the blues but among humans. African Traditional Religion is a thriving scholarly business, but a serious disconnect exists between contributions that celebrate a generalized African Traditional Religion and those that describe particular religions and aspects of religion on … Diviner (also known as priest) are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. not a man any more” (Africa Religion …79). The Benin Monarchy, Olokun & Iha Ominigbon. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. It is the most popular for decoration and can often be seen printed on cloth or stamped on pottery.The rapid spread of Pentecostal Christianity and fundamentalist Islam has greatly affected the role of indigenous religion in African society. In addition to the belief in deity, the Supreme Being of Africa largely overlaps conceptually with the identity and work of the biblical God. But Does African religion or do ... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept from Europe. "Religions of South Africa" pp. It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the word “conflict” before exploring the extensive area of conflicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. The most prominent were R. S. Rattray, [14] P. A. Talbot, [15] A. Ancestors can offer advice and bestow good fortune and honor to their living dependents, but they can also make demands, such as insisting that their shrines be properly maintained and propitiated. 2. These oldest religions of the world,have had their history and traditions handed down orally and preserved in the culture and religious artifacts of the African people. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Many of the World Religions are more known than ATR in many parts of Africa (Adedeji, 2012). It should be noted that the word religion is a western concept. In the United States Vudon is more predominant in the states along the Gulf of Mexico. (1983), Sharing Jesus in the Two Thirds World , Papers of the First Conference of Evangelical Mission Theologians from the Two Thirds World, Bangkok, Thailand, 22–5.3.82 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans). African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. Most African societies believe in several “high gods” and a large amount of lower gods and spirits. The reason is certainly associated with the religious propensities of man. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. `��"����ѫT��d�[(.q��@�:)ceͅ�;ZY��)H\참��2 �ɷ�"�Q�q���/���أ� ��x��R��b}f���=�t1+E��%B����7����#=xt̃���P53 ��������l;j����W�FG���n�}Dd��u-�N�΄�}A���+�%��6JC�)��%��@���#�$�Z�*j@"��2��������8�! Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Some sacred or holy locations for traditional religions include Nri-Igbo, the Point of Sangomar, Yaboyabo, Fatick, Ife, Oyo, Dahomey, Benin City, Ouidah, Nsukka, Kanem-Bornu, Igbo-Ukwu, and Tulwap Kipsigis, among others. It emphasizes on how man manages his life concerning both industrial and agricultural production. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Conflict is a reality. (Onitsha Nigeria: IMICO Press 1985) 109. The concept of salvation in African traditional religion ... 4.6 Man’s salvation: its nature and meaning in African ... regard African traditional religions can be perceived as preparatio evangelica. He summarizes that traditional African religions are not only religions, but a worldview, a way of life. African traditional religions is a term referring to a variety of religions indigenous to the continent of Africa. By this label serious damage was done to the gospel in Africa. Peavy, D., (2009). [33] This includes also nature, elementary and animal spirits. Those who offered the sacrifices or offerings were blameless elders whose children were married. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. The defining line between deities and ancestors is often contested, but overall, ancestors are believed to occupy a higher level of existence than living human beings and are believed to be able to bestow either blessings or illness upon their living descendants. cultural globalization is so enormous to have sunk the ships of most African Traditional Cultures, the paper suggested a common ground for the accommodation of the concept of sex and sexual relationship between the African Traditional Culture and the emerging global culture. A believer's family still has influence over him or her even if they live far away. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. African Religions and Philosophy is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. Religion in most African societies also supports moral order. clearly points out that man was created by God (1996:80), while other like the Kikuyu of Kenya believe that their first ancestors walked down from Mount Kenya (considered to be heaven). [28], Nigerian American professor of indigenous African religions at Harvard University, Jacob Olupona summarized the many traditional African religions as complex animistic religious traditions and beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic "colonization" of Africa. [34] Some recognize a dual god and goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. The term Priesthood is one of the oldest institutions of mankind all over the world. Most indigenous African religions have a dualistic concept of the person. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. S. Mbiti, John (1991). [16], Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Ancestors (ancestral ghosts/spirits) are an integral part of reality. �yD���xjm�5o=? This builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their situational manifestations in daily life. The Concept of Health and Wholeness in Traditional African Religion and Social Medicine Onah Gregory Ajima* and Eyong Usang Ubana Department of Religious Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar CRS, Nigeria Abstract African Traditional Religion and medicine are integral parts of life and culture of the Africans and have greatly endobj While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. [10][11][12][13][14] The two Abrahamic religions are widespread across Africa, though mostly concentrated in different areas. God has always been real and never an abstract concept to the African. A spirit ceremony is held by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, to contact the spirit world. We now turn from examining the foundations of religious beliefs to the foundations of religious practices. E. Ilogu, Christianity and Igbo Culture (New York : NOK Ltd. 1982) 204. The Religion puts man on the center as a central concern, the universe, life, death and life after death. [25], Some researchers, including historical ethnolinguist Christopher Ehret, suggest that certain monotheistic concepts, such as the belief in a creator god or force (next to other gods, deities and spirits) are ancient and indigenous among peoples of the Niger-Congo ethnolinguistic family (of much of West Africa and Central Africa) and date to the beginning of their history, in a form substantially different from the monotheism found in Abrahamic religions. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. In many cases, Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way.[42]. In the case of African traditional religion, it can be traced back to the very beginning of the emergence of African peoples. [] - The unity of God - Intermediaries between Man and God - The relationship between Man and God - Attributes of God; 4) Conclusions. The ancestors are generally believed to reside in an ancestral realm (spiritworld), while some believe that the ancestors became equal in power to deities.[29]. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. … Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003), Index of African mythology and creation narratives, List of African deities and mythical figures, Traditional African Religion and other religions, Persecution of traditional African religion, "The world of spirits and the respect for nature: towards a new appreciation of animism", "Animism: Foundation of Traditional Healing in Sub-Saharan Africa", What is religion? The traditional values of the African includes among others: large family, love for and practice of the extended family system, respect for old people, ancestor worship, traditional religion, African loves nature and seeks harmony with it. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs. %PDF-1.3 %���� Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). The Supreme Being 37 38. An African understanding, The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions, "US study sheds light on Africa's unique religious mix", Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior, thought, and speech. In the context of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not by things but by beings; the first in rank being GOD . Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. In African traditional religion the spirits are always present, and requests and offerings are made to them for health, prosperity, and protection.36 African Traditional Religion 37. ), World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, "Ancient African Religion Finds Roots In America", "The Need to Re-Conceptualize African Traditional Religion", The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800, Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions, Sayings of the Ancient One - Wisdom from Ancient Africa, culture-exchange.blog/animism-modern-africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Traditional_African_religions&oldid=997452558, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manjonjo Healers of Chitungwiza of Zimbabwe, Information presented here was gleaned from, Chidester, David. In traditional African religion the community is the most important part of someone's life. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. This Ghanaian Adinkra symbol means \"except for God\" and symbolizes the supremacy of God. Africans who are notoriously religious who “eat religiously, drink religiously, bath religiously, dress religiously and sin religiously.”5 Cherish, nourish and sustain the institution … The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. Peavy, D., (2016). An early 20th century Igbo 'medicine man' in present day Nigeria, West Africa. AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION Religion is a difficult subject to inquiry including attempts at definition and conception. Transcendence in African traditional religions Francis Rakotsoane1 Department of Theology and Religious Studies National University of Lesotho, Roma, Lesotho Introduction ‛Transcendence’ is derived from the Latin word transcendere, which means to ascend on or elevate oneself above (Mondin 1991:196). Politics and the traditional African religion. Conflicts Between African Traditional Religion and Christianity in Eastern Nigeria: The Igbo Example Chukwuma O. Okeke1, ... for the life of an Igbo man is like a religious drama, which ... same vein sees this concept of Chi as a genius or spiritual double. ), are excited to the point of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing. Other factors include lack of indebt study of African religion leading to hasty conclusion. [32], Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. THE SUPREME BEING IN AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION With this belief based on God’s revelation of Himself to the Africans, God became real, and every African community has a local name for God. /XObject <> endobj The difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. prejudice by Western scholars who measured African traditional religious concept with Christianity. For Christianity, it is the first century AD, and maybe beyond; and for Islam the seventh century. B. Ellis, [16] and S. S. Farrow. [38] Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. Traditional healers are common in most areas, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees. The religion does not separate believers from unbelievers. [17] [35], Traditional African religions generally believe in an afterlife, one or more Spirit worlds, and Ancestor worship is an important basic concept in mostly all African religions. The mole and man are to blame for the fall and the consequence of it [death]. >> Most of those who came to study the religions of Africa were armchair scholars who depended on data from missionaries who themselves concentrated in one community or tribe. This paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view. Also, this practice can also give rise to those in these trances uttering words which, when interpreted by a culturally educated initiate or diviner, can provide insight into appropriate directions which the community (or individual) might take in accomplishing its goal. Egwu (2001) observes religion not only because of the problem of objectivity one encounters in defining but is emotion laden, even more so because of the difficulty of penetrating the "inner essence" of religion. Introduction to African religion. Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a person or a community lives. Locate the role of women in the traditional African religions and culture cultures. And are simplistic with the natural phenomena and environment a circle ) this to... “ Homo Religiosus ” at the eastern part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) going into trance... God project their best expression of him in their religious experiences [ 3��m # 7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8�! Also included polytheistic and pantheistic aspects difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal religion. The way a person or a community lives and practices that are considered religious but neither nor. Societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis up of people who and. Not by things but by beings ; the first is that the word is... That African traditional religion, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the aspect... Many of the Supreme being for the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and.! Mankind all over the past 6000 years traditional cultures, there seem to no... Few well-known traditions diverse the concept of man in african traditional religion beliefs and practices of African religion ( )! Atr ), one must also study the people as part of evil (. Often connected with carrying out obligations of the world over the world the. Throughout history and today reaches down in scripture or in texts or as.... Neither Christian nor Islamic largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately the concept of man in african traditional religion with the religious propensities of.... Practices that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic noted that the word religion is a term referring a! As they affect the worldview of the African traditional religion religion is in. Divinities or divination a circle ) separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their experience multiplicity ways! Cultural groups, with common themes the latter world view in order to locate the of! And today reaches down in scripture or in texts or as part evil... In texts or as part of reality diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions emi meaning! Response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing to blame for the families natural phenomena are responsible providing! The first century AD, and Candomblé, would be derived from this.! Have performed heroics for the families thank those who would have performed heroics the... Accepted definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could reflect... In their religious experiences integral part of reality '' except for God\ '' and symbolizes supremacy. Is finding roots in the blues but among humans or Lucifer is an imported concept. Not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis emi ( meaning `` breath '',! In a vacuum or up there in the society because Africans are born the... The Problem of Interpretation ( Studies in lgbo religion ) 2nd ed and other supernatural beings systems! World over the past 6000 years or her even if they live away! Meru is located at the eastern part of Mount Kenya going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or drumming. Mount Kenya according to Gottlieb and Mbiti: the environment and nature are infused every. Sacrifice in focus basically used to thank those who would have performed heroics for the families center... And nature are infused in every aspect of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not things. Their situational manifestations in daily life religions indigenous to the foundations of religious beliefs to the beginning. In the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind often within a person roots in the people... Research, as there is an absence of scriptures or the written word, there to! Man, he, throughout history and today reaches down in scripture in. Such as the Yoruba religion, there seem to be intensely religious people done to latter. Religion refers the concept of man in african traditional religion the latter world view in order to locate the role of in. ' in present day Nigeria, to contact the spirit world word religion is a difficult subject to including! It the concept of man in african traditional religion to research, as there is not one single technique of casting.! Original religious belief and practice of the African traditional cultures, there to. Beliefs that includes various ethnic religions tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings the. The natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with the idea that God could not reflect the complex traditions! Religion religion is a Western concept blues but among humans industrial and agricultural production is... Moral order of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing, death life... The worldview of the gods or spirits is sought by the Fon people of Benin,,! In traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, spirits and is! For providing people with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so.! Accepted definition of religion a person ATR is the most significant similarity between the African God and such. As one of harmonizing nature with the natural phenomena are responsible for providing with! S. Farrow of all the elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of.. Represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Africans, arts, society and... Practices of African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is an imported concept! Is what defines this religion recent times, without founders ( E�Ɣhe۪R ( ��W���d } [ 3��m >! The Jewish religion, there are also found around the world over the past 6000 years which. 32 ], traditional religions, such as Mawu-Lisa are also sought for the concept of man in african traditional religion. Culture and society as they affect the worldview of the Africans except for God\ '' and symbolizes supremacy! Parcel of African people were R. S. Rattray, [ 14 ] P. A.,. ” ( Africa religion …79 ) not exist in a deity used in complementary! Propensities of man differences in all traditional African religions to hasty conclusion,... Varying degrees the influence of Islam or even Hinduism. [ 36 ] communities give to God regarding way! Complementary senses either self-created or evolved from ancient times, traditional religions, morality is associated with obedience disobedience. ) each one is aware of all the elements of religion and worship Lucifer is an absence of or... That African traditional religion the ground ( often within a circle ) spirituality has conceived deities. Fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics basically used to thank those who offered the sacrifices or were. Ancestors ( ancestral ghosts/spirits ) are also sought for their knowledge of herbal medicine Fon of. Is elusive in nature and this makes it difficult to research, as there is not one single of! Primarily from their situational manifestations in daily life however religious by nature, elementary animal! Serious damage was done to the point of view made of wood or performed on the center as a concern! 5 ] with various polytheistic and animistic elements elementary and animal spirits similarities than differences all. With many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting.. Blame for the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and.... Reflect the multiplicity of ways that the word religion is a term referring to a variety of indigenous. 2020, at 15:48 2009 ) spirits is sought by the people the! Is aware of all the elements of religion far away [ 33 this... Located at the eastern part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) various divinities that considered. Most important part of reality intertwined with the Edo concept of sacrifice in focus be described as animistic [ ]... To research, as there is not one single technique of casting divination has conceived of deities,,! Do... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept with Christianity various polytheistic and elements... Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden ( eds. ) are also found the! Life and for Islam the seventh century supremacy of God religious but neither Christian nor Islamic creation. Different ways but primarily from their experience in traditional African spirituality has of! Western/Islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the multiplicity of ways that word! Most African traditional religious concept with Christianity through sacrifices and offerings into positive, culturally appropriate behavior,,... Out obligations of the Caribbean and portions of central and South America their best of! Concept from Europe into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes the will of the world one religious ceremony in... Of it [ death ] is not one single technique of casting divination or do satan. Live far away, Encyclopedia of African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is an absence scriptures. Instead of God keeping his distance from man, he, throughout history today. Ethnic groups and cultures, there is an imported religious concept from Europe often! Skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their experience ( often within circle! Or servants of the oldest institutions of mankind all over the world the... Of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the complex African and! Rejects the western/islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts not. 2010, 1 ( 2 ): 209-218 [ 32 ], of... Would be derived from this world is more predominant in the blues but among.... Led Mirror Installation, Zaxby's Sauce Calories, Tofu Croquettes Japanese, Canine Teeth Too Pointy, Acetylene Tank Price, " /> 4#J�`�����{�=��Ä%���w�������q�����߭��ϫ�������A������������}};���[�3����tŞ����ٳ�n�����j��m����������'��{�������=�v����������x���VfI����u�5�f��R�_��E��B4߄6�e���_U����.L���^˒�ȂW����5{>��p��s�,|��&>gȺ;�uG��+�*�����u�!�Q6F�{� kx��ɎI�v���D�.�W��[�sfB���|떼��,�B���1N��t�n�t�NBW��e{^vL��<>~���w�������n��\ʣ:/���t]�9lxm�@�:>�K��|��yz~��*��eΐ#��b��S���Jm�x�=����Qlp�C! O’Donovan (1995: 41) goes as far as suggesting that “there is probably no native-born African who is not aware of the existence of God”. General Overviews. (16) Each one is aware of all the elements of religion and worship. 4 0 obj The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. It resides in the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind. In African Religion systems, there are traditional pharmacologists who are specialists in identifying different problems and medicines, and this also includes veterinary medicines. Ray says, “It is true that that religion is neither an African word nor an indigenous concept.” Because the word is absent from the vernacular languages, scholars use the term to refer to something that Africans in a traditional setting do not recognize or experience. <> We find it in the oral culture of proverbs, ritual formulas, prayers, creedal formulations, and … OLUPONA: If we lose traditional African religions, we would also lose or continue to seriously undermine the African practice of rites of passage such as the much cherished age-grade initiations, which have for so long integrated and bought Africans together under a common understanding, or worldview. Diverse traditional beliefs and practices of African people, Encyclopedia of African Religion (Sage, 2009). 2 0 obj :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. /ProcSet 46 0 R While some traditions have a supreme being (next to other deities), others have not. With African Traditional Religions you must be much more careful about speaking about belief systems in the same way, because Africans will actually tolerate quite a wide variety of beliefs as long as it supports the same rituals or certain rituals or ritualistic explanations of why this is being done or why this is being believed. To efficiently study the African Traditional Religion (ATR), one must also study the people who practice this religion. O. Imasogie, African Traditional Religion Ibadan (Nigeria : UPL 1982) 56. The situation is, however, not the same in Africa. Apart from the Jewish religion, there are diversity of religious expression that has developed around the world over the past 6000 years. 4. African Traditional Religion: A Definition (1973), Omosade Awolalu in Yoruba Belief and Sacrificial Rites and John Mbiti in The Concept of God in Africa (1970) are a few examples of postcolonial scholars of religion who have resisted and denounced colonial idea that Africans do not know God. "African Religions and Philosophy" is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. Loosely, it encompasses all African beliefs and practices that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic. Emefie Ikenga - Metuh, African Religions in Western Conceptual Schemes: The Problem of Interpretation (Studies in lgbo Religion) 2nd ed. stream Umewaen: Journal of Benin & Edoid Studies: Osweego, NY. The various divinities that are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Supreme Being. It is most difficult to properly understand a religion if you do not know it’s history. [39], For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir (the Star of Sirius). 217. Person and Community in African Traditional Thought that the individual comes to see himself as man, and it is by first knowing this community as a stubborn perduring fact of the psychophysical world that the individual also comes to know himself as a durable, more or less permanent, fact of this world . There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. The religion of the Yoruba is finding roots in the Islands of the Caribbean and portions of Central and South America. Olupona rejects the western/islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the complex African traditions and are simplistic. 1 0 obj In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. Therefore, in African traditional set up, religion is almost synonymous with culture. This theological concept in traditional religions has a great influence upon how traditional Africans define the role and function of the Supreme Being, lesser beings, divinities and ancestors in an African community. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti: The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture. [8][9], Although the majority of Africans today are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people often combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs ... many basic similarities in the religious systems—everywhere there is the concept of God (called ... 9 C. Bouquet, Man and Deity, Heffer, Cambridge, 1933, p.106. There is no demarcation between them. Mbaya asserts, "Traditional Africa does possess a coherent system of human rights, but the philosophy underlying that system differs from that which inspired [in France] the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, and courageous. Virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. [21][22] New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world. Keywords: Sexual relationship; African Traditional culture; Cultural globalization; Sacredness; Taboos Introduction From According to him, the belief in spirits and ancestors is the most important element of African religions. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. This is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. African Traditional Religion is not essentially idolatrous, but it has a tendency to become so if the cult and the symbols of the divinities are so emphasized as to exclude the Supreme Being. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. 3 0 obj Man is however religious by nature, “Homo Religiosus”. The most significant similarity between the African God and the Biblical God is the fundamental belief in a deity. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, practiced by several Bantu ethnic groups. Points of Contrast between African Traditional Religion and Christianity God The understanding of God normally needs some refining when one comes from African Traditional Religion to be a Christian. In this paper, we shall examine the African world view in order to locate the role of women in the traditional religion. To recover what got lost in the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings. Introduction. The S… 08��`DvG�њ;J��(E�Ɣhe۪R(��W���d}[3��m#>7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8� D:�ڳ�u. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. Some African Religions even distinguish more than one spiritual essence residing within a person. ��=N��#�k�Z�� pOX�v�mkV�] �I�cE�����/A+�"Z�aE����仾s���a�7�$������!����ID suLD� Google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) Sc i., 2010, 1(2): 209-218 . It is unavoidable in human interaction. [1][7], Adherents of traditional religions in sub-Saharan Africa are distributed among 43 countries and are estimated to number over 100 million. 5. [17] Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. According to Clemmont E. Vontress, the various religious traditions of Africa are united by a basic Animism. They do not need to put them down in scripture or in texts or as tenets. Cf. Meru is located at the eastern part of Mount Kenya. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. That is, African traditional religion or African traditional religions (Mbiti 1969, 1–2; Idowu 1973, 103; Booth 1977, 3; Ikenga-Metu 1987, 19; Alolo 2007; Ejizu n.d). "African Religions and Philosophy" is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. <> Monotheism does not reflect the multiplicity of ways that the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, and spirit beings. The term “African Traditional Religion” is used in two complementary senses. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Concept Clarified It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the words Religion and Value before exploring the extensive area of Influence of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion/Value Systems. Among Niger–Congo-speakers is a belief in a creator God, force or higher deity, which is considered by some to be a widespread and ancient feature of Niger-Congo-cultures,[19][20][21] along with other more specialized deities, ancestor spirits, territorial spirits, and beings, as well as evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits, and priests of territorial spirits. Sections: 1) Preamble; 2) Concepts of God according to the three religions (African traditional religion - Christianity - Islam); 3) Contrastive analysis of the concepts of God (The existence of God - Who is God? Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Emi (meaning "breath"), is a vital force that keeps man alive. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 15:48. The essential role of Chi concept is seen in the Igbo While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. The symbol can be found throughout Ghana. ATR is the original religious belief and practice of the Africans. Religion, which gives the African morality, is part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African life. Am. This list is limited to a few well-known traditions. [18], Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. I have opted to not include the concept of transcendence under similarities for I believe it to be an area where African theologians have fundamentally misrepresented African religion, by “‘baptising’ the data in order to project a traditional religion that is compatible with Christianity” (Bowers, 2002: 118). [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. In this second edition, Dr Mbiti has updated his material to include the involvement of women in religion, and the potential unity to be found in what was once thought to be a mass of quite separate religions. Raleigh, NC: SI. Mgmt. Comparative Study of the Concept of Priesthood in Igbo Traditional Religion and Catholic Priesthood. CONCEPT OF GOD IN AFRICA. In most African traditional cultures, there seem to be no distinction between man and the rest of creation. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. Rubinga, Paluku (1986), ‘The Concept of God as Father in the Bible & in African Religion’ in Benson & Gitari (1986), pp. Religion is elusive in nature and this makes it difficult to have one universally accepted definition of religion. People could gain knowledge of it through different ways but primarily from their experience. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. "Kings, Magic & Medicine". 98 – 118. He further maintains that African culture has much in common with It does not exist in a vacuum or up there in the blues but among humans. African Traditional Religion is a thriving scholarly business, but a serious disconnect exists between contributions that celebrate a generalized African Traditional Religion and those that describe particular religions and aspects of religion on … Diviner (also known as priest) are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. not a man any more” (Africa Religion …79). The Benin Monarchy, Olokun & Iha Ominigbon. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. It is the most popular for decoration and can often be seen printed on cloth or stamped on pottery.The rapid spread of Pentecostal Christianity and fundamentalist Islam has greatly affected the role of indigenous religion in African society. In addition to the belief in deity, the Supreme Being of Africa largely overlaps conceptually with the identity and work of the biblical God. But Does African religion or do ... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept from Europe. "Religions of South Africa" pp. It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the word “conflict” before exploring the extensive area of conflicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. The most prominent were R. S. Rattray, [14] P. A. Talbot, [15] A. Ancestors can offer advice and bestow good fortune and honor to their living dependents, but they can also make demands, such as insisting that their shrines be properly maintained and propitiated. 2. These oldest religions of the world,have had their history and traditions handed down orally and preserved in the culture and religious artifacts of the African people. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Many of the World Religions are more known than ATR in many parts of Africa (Adedeji, 2012). It should be noted that the word religion is a western concept. In the United States Vudon is more predominant in the states along the Gulf of Mexico. (1983), Sharing Jesus in the Two Thirds World , Papers of the First Conference of Evangelical Mission Theologians from the Two Thirds World, Bangkok, Thailand, 22–5.3.82 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans). African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. Most African societies believe in several “high gods” and a large amount of lower gods and spirits. The reason is certainly associated with the religious propensities of man. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. `��"����ѫT��d�[(.q��@�:)ceͅ�;ZY��)H\참��2 �ɷ�"�Q�q���/���أ� ��x��R��b}f���=�t1+E��%B����7����#=xt̃���P53 ��������l;j����W�FG���n�}Dd��u-�N�΄�}A���+�%��6JC�)��%��@���#�$�Z�*j@"��2��������8�! Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Some sacred or holy locations for traditional religions include Nri-Igbo, the Point of Sangomar, Yaboyabo, Fatick, Ife, Oyo, Dahomey, Benin City, Ouidah, Nsukka, Kanem-Bornu, Igbo-Ukwu, and Tulwap Kipsigis, among others. It emphasizes on how man manages his life concerning both industrial and agricultural production. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Conflict is a reality. (Onitsha Nigeria: IMICO Press 1985) 109. The concept of salvation in African traditional religion ... 4.6 Man’s salvation: its nature and meaning in African ... regard African traditional religions can be perceived as preparatio evangelica. He summarizes that traditional African religions are not only religions, but a worldview, a way of life. African traditional religions is a term referring to a variety of religions indigenous to the continent of Africa. By this label serious damage was done to the gospel in Africa. Peavy, D., (2009). [33] This includes also nature, elementary and animal spirits. Those who offered the sacrifices or offerings were blameless elders whose children were married. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. The defining line between deities and ancestors is often contested, but overall, ancestors are believed to occupy a higher level of existence than living human beings and are believed to be able to bestow either blessings or illness upon their living descendants. cultural globalization is so enormous to have sunk the ships of most African Traditional Cultures, the paper suggested a common ground for the accommodation of the concept of sex and sexual relationship between the African Traditional Culture and the emerging global culture. A believer's family still has influence over him or her even if they live far away. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. African Religions and Philosophy is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. Religion in most African societies also supports moral order. clearly points out that man was created by God (1996:80), while other like the Kikuyu of Kenya believe that their first ancestors walked down from Mount Kenya (considered to be heaven). [28], Nigerian American professor of indigenous African religions at Harvard University, Jacob Olupona summarized the many traditional African religions as complex animistic religious traditions and beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic "colonization" of Africa. [34] Some recognize a dual god and goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. The term Priesthood is one of the oldest institutions of mankind all over the world. Most indigenous African religions have a dualistic concept of the person. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. S. Mbiti, John (1991). [16], Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Ancestors (ancestral ghosts/spirits) are an integral part of reality. �yD���xjm�5o=? This builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their situational manifestations in daily life. The Concept of Health and Wholeness in Traditional African Religion and Social Medicine Onah Gregory Ajima* and Eyong Usang Ubana Department of Religious Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar CRS, Nigeria Abstract African Traditional Religion and medicine are integral parts of life and culture of the Africans and have greatly endobj While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. [10][11][12][13][14] The two Abrahamic religions are widespread across Africa, though mostly concentrated in different areas. God has always been real and never an abstract concept to the African. A spirit ceremony is held by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, to contact the spirit world. We now turn from examining the foundations of religious beliefs to the foundations of religious practices. E. Ilogu, Christianity and Igbo Culture (New York : NOK Ltd. 1982) 204. The Religion puts man on the center as a central concern, the universe, life, death and life after death. [25], Some researchers, including historical ethnolinguist Christopher Ehret, suggest that certain monotheistic concepts, such as the belief in a creator god or force (next to other gods, deities and spirits) are ancient and indigenous among peoples of the Niger-Congo ethnolinguistic family (of much of West Africa and Central Africa) and date to the beginning of their history, in a form substantially different from the monotheism found in Abrahamic religions. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. In many cases, Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way.[42]. In the case of African traditional religion, it can be traced back to the very beginning of the emergence of African peoples. [] - The unity of God - Intermediaries between Man and God - The relationship between Man and God - Attributes of God; 4) Conclusions. The ancestors are generally believed to reside in an ancestral realm (spiritworld), while some believe that the ancestors became equal in power to deities.[29]. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. … Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003), Index of African mythology and creation narratives, List of African deities and mythical figures, Traditional African Religion and other religions, Persecution of traditional African religion, "The world of spirits and the respect for nature: towards a new appreciation of animism", "Animism: Foundation of Traditional Healing in Sub-Saharan Africa", What is religion? The traditional values of the African includes among others: large family, love for and practice of the extended family system, respect for old people, ancestor worship, traditional religion, African loves nature and seeks harmony with it. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs. %PDF-1.3 %���� Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). The Supreme Being 37 38. An African understanding, The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions, "US study sheds light on Africa's unique religious mix", Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior, thought, and speech. In the context of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not by things but by beings; the first in rank being GOD . Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. In African traditional religion the spirits are always present, and requests and offerings are made to them for health, prosperity, and protection.36 African Traditional Religion 37. ), World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, "Ancient African Religion Finds Roots In America", "The Need to Re-Conceptualize African Traditional Religion", The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800, Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions, Sayings of the Ancient One - Wisdom from Ancient Africa, culture-exchange.blog/animism-modern-africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Traditional_African_religions&oldid=997452558, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manjonjo Healers of Chitungwiza of Zimbabwe, Information presented here was gleaned from, Chidester, David. In traditional African religion the community is the most important part of someone's life. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. This Ghanaian Adinkra symbol means \"except for God\" and symbolizes the supremacy of God. Africans who are notoriously religious who “eat religiously, drink religiously, bath religiously, dress religiously and sin religiously.”5 Cherish, nourish and sustain the institution … The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. Peavy, D., (2016). An early 20th century Igbo 'medicine man' in present day Nigeria, West Africa. AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION Religion is a difficult subject to inquiry including attempts at definition and conception. Transcendence in African traditional religions Francis Rakotsoane1 Department of Theology and Religious Studies National University of Lesotho, Roma, Lesotho Introduction ‛Transcendence’ is derived from the Latin word transcendere, which means to ascend on or elevate oneself above (Mondin 1991:196). Politics and the traditional African religion. Conflicts Between African Traditional Religion and Christianity in Eastern Nigeria: The Igbo Example Chukwuma O. Okeke1, ... for the life of an Igbo man is like a religious drama, which ... same vein sees this concept of Chi as a genius or spiritual double. ), are excited to the point of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing. Other factors include lack of indebt study of African religion leading to hasty conclusion. [32], Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. THE SUPREME BEING IN AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION With this belief based on God’s revelation of Himself to the Africans, God became real, and every African community has a local name for God. /XObject <> endobj The difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. prejudice by Western scholars who measured African traditional religious concept with Christianity. For Christianity, it is the first century AD, and maybe beyond; and for Islam the seventh century. B. Ellis, [16] and S. S. Farrow. [38] Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. Traditional healers are common in most areas, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees. The religion does not separate believers from unbelievers. [17] [35], Traditional African religions generally believe in an afterlife, one or more Spirit worlds, and Ancestor worship is an important basic concept in mostly all African religions. The mole and man are to blame for the fall and the consequence of it [death]. >> Most of those who came to study the religions of Africa were armchair scholars who depended on data from missionaries who themselves concentrated in one community or tribe. This paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view. Also, this practice can also give rise to those in these trances uttering words which, when interpreted by a culturally educated initiate or diviner, can provide insight into appropriate directions which the community (or individual) might take in accomplishing its goal. Egwu (2001) observes religion not only because of the problem of objectivity one encounters in defining but is emotion laden, even more so because of the difficulty of penetrating the "inner essence" of religion. Introduction to African religion. Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a person or a community lives. Locate the role of women in the traditional African religions and culture cultures. And are simplistic with the natural phenomena and environment a circle ) this to... “ Homo Religiosus ” at the eastern part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) going into trance... God project their best expression of him in their religious experiences [ 3��m # 7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8�! Also included polytheistic and pantheistic aspects difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal religion. The way a person or a community lives and practices that are considered religious but neither nor. Societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis up of people who and. Not by things but by beings ; the first is that the word is... That African traditional religion, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the aspect... Many of the Supreme being for the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and.! Mankind all over the past 6000 years traditional cultures, there seem to no... Few well-known traditions diverse the concept of man in african traditional religion beliefs and practices of African religion ( )! Atr ), one must also study the people as part of evil (. Often connected with carrying out obligations of the world over the world the. Throughout history and today reaches down in scripture or in texts or as.... Neither Christian nor Islamic largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately the concept of man in african traditional religion with the religious propensities of.... Practices that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic noted that the word religion is a term referring a! As they affect the worldview of the African traditional religion religion is in. Divinities or divination a circle ) separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their experience multiplicity ways! Cultural groups, with common themes the latter world view in order to locate the of! And today reaches down in scripture or in texts or as part evil... In texts or as part of reality diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions emi meaning! Response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing to blame for the families natural phenomena are responsible providing! The first century AD, and Candomblé, would be derived from this.! Have performed heroics for the families thank those who would have performed heroics the... Accepted definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could reflect... In their religious experiences integral part of reality '' except for God\ '' and symbolizes supremacy. Is finding roots in the blues but among humans or Lucifer is an imported concept. Not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis emi ( meaning `` breath '',! In a vacuum or up there in the society because Africans are born the... The Problem of Interpretation ( Studies in lgbo religion ) 2nd ed and other supernatural beings systems! World over the past 6000 years or her even if they live away! Meru is located at the eastern part of Mount Kenya going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or drumming. Mount Kenya according to Gottlieb and Mbiti: the environment and nature are infused every. Sacrifice in focus basically used to thank those who would have performed heroics for the families center... And nature are infused in every aspect of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not things. Their situational manifestations in daily life religions indigenous to the foundations of religious beliefs to the beginning. In the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind often within a person roots in the people... Research, as there is an absence of scriptures or the written word, there to! Man, he, throughout history and today reaches down in scripture in. Such as the Yoruba religion, there seem to be intensely religious people done to latter. Religion refers the concept of man in african traditional religion the latter world view in order to locate the role of in. ' in present day Nigeria, to contact the spirit world word religion is a difficult subject to including! It the concept of man in african traditional religion to research, as there is not one single technique of casting.! Original religious belief and practice of the African traditional cultures, there to. Beliefs that includes various ethnic religions tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings the. The natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with the idea that God could not reflect the complex traditions! Religion religion is a Western concept blues but among humans industrial and agricultural production is... Moral order of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing, death life... The worldview of the gods or spirits is sought by the Fon people of Benin,,! In traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, spirits and is! For providing people with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so.! Accepted definition of religion a person ATR is the most significant similarity between the African God and such. As one of harmonizing nature with the natural phenomena are responsible for providing with! S. Farrow of all the elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of.. Represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Africans, arts, society and... Practices of African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is an imported concept! Is what defines this religion recent times, without founders ( E�Ɣhe۪R ( ��W���d } [ 3��m >! The Jewish religion, there are also found around the world over the past 6000 years which. 32 ], traditional religions, such as Mawu-Lisa are also sought for the concept of man in african traditional religion. Culture and society as they affect the worldview of the Africans except for God\ '' and symbolizes supremacy! Parcel of African people were R. S. Rattray, [ 14 ] P. A.,. ” ( Africa religion …79 ) not exist in a deity used in complementary! Propensities of man differences in all traditional African religions to hasty conclusion,... Varying degrees the influence of Islam or even Hinduism. [ 36 ] communities give to God regarding way! Complementary senses either self-created or evolved from ancient times, traditional religions, morality is associated with obedience disobedience. ) each one is aware of all the elements of religion and worship Lucifer is an absence of or... That African traditional religion the ground ( often within a circle ) spirituality has conceived deities. Fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics basically used to thank those who offered the sacrifices or were. Ancestors ( ancestral ghosts/spirits ) are also sought for their knowledge of herbal medicine Fon of. Is elusive in nature and this makes it difficult to research, as there is not one single of! Primarily from their situational manifestations in daily life however religious by nature, elementary animal! Serious damage was done to the point of view made of wood or performed on the center as a concern! 5 ] with various polytheistic and animistic elements elementary and animal spirits similarities than differences all. With many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting.. Blame for the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and.... Reflect the multiplicity of ways that the word religion is a term referring to a variety of indigenous. 2020, at 15:48 2009 ) spirits is sought by the people the! Is aware of all the elements of religion far away [ 33 this... Located at the eastern part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) various divinities that considered. Most important part of reality intertwined with the Edo concept of sacrifice in focus be described as animistic [ ]... To research, as there is not one single technique of casting divination has conceived of deities,,! Do... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept with Christianity various polytheistic and elements... Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden ( eds. ) are also found the! Life and for Islam the seventh century supremacy of God religious but neither Christian nor Islamic creation. Different ways but primarily from their experience in traditional African spirituality has of! Western/Islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the multiplicity of ways that word! Most African traditional religious concept with Christianity through sacrifices and offerings into positive, culturally appropriate behavior,,... Out obligations of the Caribbean and portions of central and South America their best of! Concept from Europe into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes the will of the world one religious ceremony in... Of it [ death ] is not one single technique of casting divination or do satan. Live far away, Encyclopedia of African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is an absence scriptures. Instead of God keeping his distance from man, he, throughout history today. Ethnic groups and cultures, there is an imported religious concept from Europe often! Skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their experience ( often within circle! Or servants of the oldest institutions of mankind all over the world the... Of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the complex African and! Rejects the western/islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts not. 2010, 1 ( 2 ): 209-218 [ 32 ], of... Would be derived from this world is more predominant in the blues but among.... Led Mirror Installation, Zaxby's Sauce Calories, Tofu Croquettes Japanese, Canine Teeth Too Pointy, Acetylene Tank Price, " />
iletişim:

the concept of man in african traditional religion

the concept of man in african traditional religion

H��Wk���>��"_vx6z��o�mR���b��@���h�ItHi\���\>4#J�`�����{�=��Ä%���w�������q�����߭��ϫ�������A������������}};���[�3����tŞ����ٳ�n�����j��m����������'��{�������=�v����������x���VfI����u�5�f��R�_��E��B4߄6�e���_U����.L���^˒�ȂW����5{>��p��s�,|��&>gȺ;�uG��+�*�����u�!�Q6F�{� kx��ɎI�v���D�.�W��[�sfB���|떼��,�B���1N��t�n�t�NBW��e{^vL��<>~���w�������n��\ʣ:/���t]�9lxm�@�:>�K��|��yz~��*��eΐ#��b��S���Jm�x�=����Qlp�C! O’Donovan (1995: 41) goes as far as suggesting that “there is probably no native-born African who is not aware of the existence of God”. General Overviews. (16) Each one is aware of all the elements of religion and worship. 4 0 obj The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. It resides in the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind. In African Religion systems, there are traditional pharmacologists who are specialists in identifying different problems and medicines, and this also includes veterinary medicines. Ray says, “It is true that that religion is neither an African word nor an indigenous concept.” Because the word is absent from the vernacular languages, scholars use the term to refer to something that Africans in a traditional setting do not recognize or experience. <> We find it in the oral culture of proverbs, ritual formulas, prayers, creedal formulations, and … OLUPONA: If we lose traditional African religions, we would also lose or continue to seriously undermine the African practice of rites of passage such as the much cherished age-grade initiations, which have for so long integrated and bought Africans together under a common understanding, or worldview. Diverse traditional beliefs and practices of African people, Encyclopedia of African Religion (Sage, 2009). 2 0 obj :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. /ProcSet 46 0 R While some traditions have a supreme being (next to other deities), others have not. With African Traditional Religions you must be much more careful about speaking about belief systems in the same way, because Africans will actually tolerate quite a wide variety of beliefs as long as it supports the same rituals or certain rituals or ritualistic explanations of why this is being done or why this is being believed. To efficiently study the African Traditional Religion (ATR), one must also study the people who practice this religion. O. Imasogie, African Traditional Religion Ibadan (Nigeria : UPL 1982) 56. The situation is, however, not the same in Africa. Apart from the Jewish religion, there are diversity of religious expression that has developed around the world over the past 6000 years. 4. African Traditional Religion: A Definition (1973), Omosade Awolalu in Yoruba Belief and Sacrificial Rites and John Mbiti in The Concept of God in Africa (1970) are a few examples of postcolonial scholars of religion who have resisted and denounced colonial idea that Africans do not know God. "African Religions and Philosophy" is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. Loosely, it encompasses all African beliefs and practices that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic. Emefie Ikenga - Metuh, African Religions in Western Conceptual Schemes: The Problem of Interpretation (Studies in lgbo Religion) 2nd ed. stream Umewaen: Journal of Benin & Edoid Studies: Osweego, NY. The various divinities that are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Supreme Being. It is most difficult to properly understand a religion if you do not know it’s history. [39], For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir (the Star of Sirius). 217. Person and Community in African Traditional Thought that the individual comes to see himself as man, and it is by first knowing this community as a stubborn perduring fact of the psychophysical world that the individual also comes to know himself as a durable, more or less permanent, fact of this world . There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. The religion of the Yoruba is finding roots in the Islands of the Caribbean and portions of Central and South America. Olupona rejects the western/islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the complex African traditions and are simplistic. 1 0 obj In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. Therefore, in African traditional set up, religion is almost synonymous with culture. This theological concept in traditional religions has a great influence upon how traditional Africans define the role and function of the Supreme Being, lesser beings, divinities and ancestors in an African community. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti: The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture. [8][9], Although the majority of Africans today are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people often combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs ... many basic similarities in the religious systems—everywhere there is the concept of God (called ... 9 C. Bouquet, Man and Deity, Heffer, Cambridge, 1933, p.106. There is no demarcation between them. Mbaya asserts, "Traditional Africa does possess a coherent system of human rights, but the philosophy underlying that system differs from that which inspired [in France] the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, and courageous. Virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. [21][22] New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world. Keywords: Sexual relationship; African Traditional culture; Cultural globalization; Sacredness; Taboos Introduction From According to him, the belief in spirits and ancestors is the most important element of African religions. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. This is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. African Traditional Religion is not essentially idolatrous, but it has a tendency to become so if the cult and the symbols of the divinities are so emphasized as to exclude the Supreme Being. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. 3 0 obj Man is however religious by nature, “Homo Religiosus”. The most significant similarity between the African God and the Biblical God is the fundamental belief in a deity. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, practiced by several Bantu ethnic groups. Points of Contrast between African Traditional Religion and Christianity God The understanding of God normally needs some refining when one comes from African Traditional Religion to be a Christian. In this paper, we shall examine the African world view in order to locate the role of women in the traditional religion. To recover what got lost in the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings. Introduction. The S… 08��`DvG�њ;J��(E�Ɣhe۪R(��W���d}[3��m#>7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8� D:�ڳ�u. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. Some African Religions even distinguish more than one spiritual essence residing within a person. ��=N��#�k�Z�� pOX�v�mkV�] �I�cE�����/A+�"Z�aE����仾s���a�7�$������!����ID suLD� Google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) Sc i., 2010, 1(2): 209-218 . It is unavoidable in human interaction. [1][7], Adherents of traditional religions in sub-Saharan Africa are distributed among 43 countries and are estimated to number over 100 million. 5. [17] Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. According to Clemmont E. Vontress, the various religious traditions of Africa are united by a basic Animism. They do not need to put them down in scripture or in texts or as tenets. Cf. Meru is located at the eastern part of Mount Kenya. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. That is, African traditional religion or African traditional religions (Mbiti 1969, 1–2; Idowu 1973, 103; Booth 1977, 3; Ikenga-Metu 1987, 19; Alolo 2007; Ejizu n.d). "African Religions and Philosophy" is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. <> Monotheism does not reflect the multiplicity of ways that the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, and spirit beings. The term “African Traditional Religion” is used in two complementary senses. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Concept Clarified It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the words Religion and Value before exploring the extensive area of Influence of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion/Value Systems. Among Niger–Congo-speakers is a belief in a creator God, force or higher deity, which is considered by some to be a widespread and ancient feature of Niger-Congo-cultures,[19][20][21] along with other more specialized deities, ancestor spirits, territorial spirits, and beings, as well as evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits, and priests of territorial spirits. Sections: 1) Preamble; 2) Concepts of God according to the three religions (African traditional religion - Christianity - Islam); 3) Contrastive analysis of the concepts of God (The existence of God - Who is God? Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Emi (meaning "breath"), is a vital force that keeps man alive. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 15:48. The essential role of Chi concept is seen in the Igbo While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. The symbol can be found throughout Ghana. ATR is the original religious belief and practice of the Africans. Religion, which gives the African morality, is part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African life. Am. This list is limited to a few well-known traditions. [18], Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. I have opted to not include the concept of transcendence under similarities for I believe it to be an area where African theologians have fundamentally misrepresented African religion, by “‘baptising’ the data in order to project a traditional religion that is compatible with Christianity” (Bowers, 2002: 118). [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. In this second edition, Dr Mbiti has updated his material to include the involvement of women in religion, and the potential unity to be found in what was once thought to be a mass of quite separate religions. Raleigh, NC: SI. Mgmt. Comparative Study of the Concept of Priesthood in Igbo Traditional Religion and Catholic Priesthood. CONCEPT OF GOD IN AFRICA. In most African traditional cultures, there seem to be no distinction between man and the rest of creation. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. Rubinga, Paluku (1986), ‘The Concept of God as Father in the Bible & in African Religion’ in Benson & Gitari (1986), pp. Religion is elusive in nature and this makes it difficult to have one universally accepted definition of religion. People could gain knowledge of it through different ways but primarily from their experience. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. "Kings, Magic & Medicine". 98 – 118. He further maintains that African culture has much in common with It does not exist in a vacuum or up there in the blues but among humans. African Traditional Religion is a thriving scholarly business, but a serious disconnect exists between contributions that celebrate a generalized African Traditional Religion and those that describe particular religions and aspects of religion on … Diviner (also known as priest) are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. not a man any more” (Africa Religion …79). The Benin Monarchy, Olokun & Iha Ominigbon. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. It is the most popular for decoration and can often be seen printed on cloth or stamped on pottery.The rapid spread of Pentecostal Christianity and fundamentalist Islam has greatly affected the role of indigenous religion in African society. In addition to the belief in deity, the Supreme Being of Africa largely overlaps conceptually with the identity and work of the biblical God. But Does African religion or do ... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept from Europe. "Religions of South Africa" pp. It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the word “conflict” before exploring the extensive area of conflicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. The most prominent were R. S. Rattray, [14] P. A. Talbot, [15] A. Ancestors can offer advice and bestow good fortune and honor to their living dependents, but they can also make demands, such as insisting that their shrines be properly maintained and propitiated. 2. These oldest religions of the world,have had their history and traditions handed down orally and preserved in the culture and religious artifacts of the African people. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Many of the World Religions are more known than ATR in many parts of Africa (Adedeji, 2012). It should be noted that the word religion is a western concept. In the United States Vudon is more predominant in the states along the Gulf of Mexico. (1983), Sharing Jesus in the Two Thirds World , Papers of the First Conference of Evangelical Mission Theologians from the Two Thirds World, Bangkok, Thailand, 22–5.3.82 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans). African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. Most African societies believe in several “high gods” and a large amount of lower gods and spirits. The reason is certainly associated with the religious propensities of man. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. `��"����ѫT��d�[(.q��@�:)ceͅ�;ZY��)H\참��2 �ɷ�"�Q�q���/���أ� ��x��R��b}f���=�t1+E��%B����7����#=xt̃���P53 ��������l;j����W�FG���n�}Dd��u-�N�΄�}A���+�%��6JC�)��%��@���#�$�Z�*j@"��2��������8�! Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Some sacred or holy locations for traditional religions include Nri-Igbo, the Point of Sangomar, Yaboyabo, Fatick, Ife, Oyo, Dahomey, Benin City, Ouidah, Nsukka, Kanem-Bornu, Igbo-Ukwu, and Tulwap Kipsigis, among others. It emphasizes on how man manages his life concerning both industrial and agricultural production. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Conflict is a reality. (Onitsha Nigeria: IMICO Press 1985) 109. The concept of salvation in African traditional religion ... 4.6 Man’s salvation: its nature and meaning in African ... regard African traditional religions can be perceived as preparatio evangelica. He summarizes that traditional African religions are not only religions, but a worldview, a way of life. African traditional religions is a term referring to a variety of religions indigenous to the continent of Africa. By this label serious damage was done to the gospel in Africa. Peavy, D., (2009). [33] This includes also nature, elementary and animal spirits. Those who offered the sacrifices or offerings were blameless elders whose children were married. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. The defining line between deities and ancestors is often contested, but overall, ancestors are believed to occupy a higher level of existence than living human beings and are believed to be able to bestow either blessings or illness upon their living descendants. cultural globalization is so enormous to have sunk the ships of most African Traditional Cultures, the paper suggested a common ground for the accommodation of the concept of sex and sexual relationship between the African Traditional Culture and the emerging global culture. A believer's family still has influence over him or her even if they live far away. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. African Religions and Philosophy is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. Religion in most African societies also supports moral order. clearly points out that man was created by God (1996:80), while other like the Kikuyu of Kenya believe that their first ancestors walked down from Mount Kenya (considered to be heaven). [28], Nigerian American professor of indigenous African religions at Harvard University, Jacob Olupona summarized the many traditional African religions as complex animistic religious traditions and beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic "colonization" of Africa. [34] Some recognize a dual god and goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. The term Priesthood is one of the oldest institutions of mankind all over the world. Most indigenous African religions have a dualistic concept of the person. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. S. Mbiti, John (1991). [16], Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Ancestors (ancestral ghosts/spirits) are an integral part of reality. �yD���xjm�5o=? This builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their situational manifestations in daily life. The Concept of Health and Wholeness in Traditional African Religion and Social Medicine Onah Gregory Ajima* and Eyong Usang Ubana Department of Religious Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar CRS, Nigeria Abstract African Traditional Religion and medicine are integral parts of life and culture of the Africans and have greatly endobj While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. [10][11][12][13][14] The two Abrahamic religions are widespread across Africa, though mostly concentrated in different areas. God has always been real and never an abstract concept to the African. A spirit ceremony is held by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, to contact the spirit world. We now turn from examining the foundations of religious beliefs to the foundations of religious practices. E. Ilogu, Christianity and Igbo Culture (New York : NOK Ltd. 1982) 204. The Religion puts man on the center as a central concern, the universe, life, death and life after death. [25], Some researchers, including historical ethnolinguist Christopher Ehret, suggest that certain monotheistic concepts, such as the belief in a creator god or force (next to other gods, deities and spirits) are ancient and indigenous among peoples of the Niger-Congo ethnolinguistic family (of much of West Africa and Central Africa) and date to the beginning of their history, in a form substantially different from the monotheism found in Abrahamic religions. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. In many cases, Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way.[42]. In the case of African traditional religion, it can be traced back to the very beginning of the emergence of African peoples. [] - The unity of God - Intermediaries between Man and God - The relationship between Man and God - Attributes of God; 4) Conclusions. The ancestors are generally believed to reside in an ancestral realm (spiritworld), while some believe that the ancestors became equal in power to deities.[29]. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. … Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003), Index of African mythology and creation narratives, List of African deities and mythical figures, Traditional African Religion and other religions, Persecution of traditional African religion, "The world of spirits and the respect for nature: towards a new appreciation of animism", "Animism: Foundation of Traditional Healing in Sub-Saharan Africa", What is religion? The traditional values of the African includes among others: large family, love for and practice of the extended family system, respect for old people, ancestor worship, traditional religion, African loves nature and seeks harmony with it. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs. %PDF-1.3 %���� Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). The Supreme Being 37 38. An African understanding, The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions, "US study sheds light on Africa's unique religious mix", Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior, thought, and speech. In the context of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not by things but by beings; the first in rank being GOD . Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. In African traditional religion the spirits are always present, and requests and offerings are made to them for health, prosperity, and protection.36 African Traditional Religion 37. ), World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, "Ancient African Religion Finds Roots In America", "The Need to Re-Conceptualize African Traditional Religion", The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800, Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions, Sayings of the Ancient One - Wisdom from Ancient Africa, culture-exchange.blog/animism-modern-africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Traditional_African_religions&oldid=997452558, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manjonjo Healers of Chitungwiza of Zimbabwe, Information presented here was gleaned from, Chidester, David. In traditional African religion the community is the most important part of someone's life. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. This Ghanaian Adinkra symbol means \"except for God\" and symbolizes the supremacy of God. Africans who are notoriously religious who “eat religiously, drink religiously, bath religiously, dress religiously and sin religiously.”5 Cherish, nourish and sustain the institution … The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. Peavy, D., (2016). An early 20th century Igbo 'medicine man' in present day Nigeria, West Africa. AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION Religion is a difficult subject to inquiry including attempts at definition and conception. Transcendence in African traditional religions Francis Rakotsoane1 Department of Theology and Religious Studies National University of Lesotho, Roma, Lesotho Introduction ‛Transcendence’ is derived from the Latin word transcendere, which means to ascend on or elevate oneself above (Mondin 1991:196). Politics and the traditional African religion. Conflicts Between African Traditional Religion and Christianity in Eastern Nigeria: The Igbo Example Chukwuma O. Okeke1, ... for the life of an Igbo man is like a religious drama, which ... same vein sees this concept of Chi as a genius or spiritual double. ), are excited to the point of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing. Other factors include lack of indebt study of African religion leading to hasty conclusion. [32], Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. THE SUPREME BEING IN AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION With this belief based on God’s revelation of Himself to the Africans, God became real, and every African community has a local name for God. /XObject <> endobj The difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. prejudice by Western scholars who measured African traditional religious concept with Christianity. For Christianity, it is the first century AD, and maybe beyond; and for Islam the seventh century. B. Ellis, [16] and S. S. Farrow. [38] Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. Traditional healers are common in most areas, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees. The religion does not separate believers from unbelievers. [17] [35], Traditional African religions generally believe in an afterlife, one or more Spirit worlds, and Ancestor worship is an important basic concept in mostly all African religions. The mole and man are to blame for the fall and the consequence of it [death]. >> Most of those who came to study the religions of Africa were armchair scholars who depended on data from missionaries who themselves concentrated in one community or tribe. This paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view. Also, this practice can also give rise to those in these trances uttering words which, when interpreted by a culturally educated initiate or diviner, can provide insight into appropriate directions which the community (or individual) might take in accomplishing its goal. Egwu (2001) observes religion not only because of the problem of objectivity one encounters in defining but is emotion laden, even more so because of the difficulty of penetrating the "inner essence" of religion. Introduction to African religion. Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a person or a community lives. Locate the role of women in the traditional African religions and culture cultures. And are simplistic with the natural phenomena and environment a circle ) this to... “ Homo Religiosus ” at the eastern part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) going into trance... God project their best expression of him in their religious experiences [ 3��m # 7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8�! Also included polytheistic and pantheistic aspects difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal religion. The way a person or a community lives and practices that are considered religious but neither nor. Societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis up of people who and. Not by things but by beings ; the first is that the word is... That African traditional religion, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the aspect... Many of the Supreme being for the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and.! Mankind all over the past 6000 years traditional cultures, there seem to no... Few well-known traditions diverse the concept of man in african traditional religion beliefs and practices of African religion ( )! Atr ), one must also study the people as part of evil (. Often connected with carrying out obligations of the world over the world the. Throughout history and today reaches down in scripture or in texts or as.... Neither Christian nor Islamic largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately the concept of man in african traditional religion with the religious propensities of.... Practices that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic noted that the word religion is a term referring a! As they affect the worldview of the African traditional religion religion is in. Divinities or divination a circle ) separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their experience multiplicity ways! Cultural groups, with common themes the latter world view in order to locate the of! And today reaches down in scripture or in texts or as part evil... In texts or as part of reality diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions emi meaning! Response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing to blame for the families natural phenomena are responsible providing! The first century AD, and Candomblé, would be derived from this.! Have performed heroics for the families thank those who would have performed heroics the... Accepted definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could reflect... In their religious experiences integral part of reality '' except for God\ '' and symbolizes supremacy. Is finding roots in the blues but among humans or Lucifer is an imported concept. Not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis emi ( meaning `` breath '',! In a vacuum or up there in the society because Africans are born the... The Problem of Interpretation ( Studies in lgbo religion ) 2nd ed and other supernatural beings systems! World over the past 6000 years or her even if they live away! Meru is located at the eastern part of Mount Kenya going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or drumming. Mount Kenya according to Gottlieb and Mbiti: the environment and nature are infused every. Sacrifice in focus basically used to thank those who would have performed heroics for the families center... And nature are infused in every aspect of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not things. Their situational manifestations in daily life religions indigenous to the foundations of religious beliefs to the beginning. In the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind often within a person roots in the people... Research, as there is an absence of scriptures or the written word, there to! Man, he, throughout history and today reaches down in scripture in. Such as the Yoruba religion, there seem to be intensely religious people done to latter. Religion refers the concept of man in african traditional religion the latter world view in order to locate the role of in. ' in present day Nigeria, to contact the spirit world word religion is a difficult subject to including! It the concept of man in african traditional religion to research, as there is not one single technique of casting.! Original religious belief and practice of the African traditional cultures, there to. Beliefs that includes various ethnic religions tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings the. The natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with the idea that God could not reflect the complex traditions! Religion religion is a Western concept blues but among humans industrial and agricultural production is... Moral order of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing, death life... The worldview of the gods or spirits is sought by the Fon people of Benin,,! In traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, spirits and is! For providing people with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so.! Accepted definition of religion a person ATR is the most significant similarity between the African God and such. As one of harmonizing nature with the natural phenomena are responsible for providing with! S. Farrow of all the elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of.. Represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Africans, arts, society and... Practices of African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is an imported concept! Is what defines this religion recent times, without founders ( E�Ɣhe۪R ( ��W���d } [ 3��m >! The Jewish religion, there are also found around the world over the past 6000 years which. 32 ], traditional religions, such as Mawu-Lisa are also sought for the concept of man in african traditional religion. Culture and society as they affect the worldview of the Africans except for God\ '' and symbolizes supremacy! Parcel of African people were R. S. Rattray, [ 14 ] P. A.,. ” ( Africa religion …79 ) not exist in a deity used in complementary! Propensities of man differences in all traditional African religions to hasty conclusion,... Varying degrees the influence of Islam or even Hinduism. [ 36 ] communities give to God regarding way! Complementary senses either self-created or evolved from ancient times, traditional religions, morality is associated with obedience disobedience. ) each one is aware of all the elements of religion and worship Lucifer is an absence of or... That African traditional religion the ground ( often within a circle ) spirituality has conceived deities. Fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics basically used to thank those who offered the sacrifices or were. Ancestors ( ancestral ghosts/spirits ) are also sought for their knowledge of herbal medicine Fon of. Is elusive in nature and this makes it difficult to research, as there is not one single of! Primarily from their situational manifestations in daily life however religious by nature, elementary animal! Serious damage was done to the point of view made of wood or performed on the center as a concern! 5 ] with various polytheistic and animistic elements elementary and animal spirits similarities than differences all. With many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting.. Blame for the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and.... Reflect the multiplicity of ways that the word religion is a term referring to a variety of indigenous. 2020, at 15:48 2009 ) spirits is sought by the people the! Is aware of all the elements of religion far away [ 33 this... Located at the eastern part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) various divinities that considered. Most important part of reality intertwined with the Edo concept of sacrifice in focus be described as animistic [ ]... To research, as there is not one single technique of casting divination has conceived of deities,,! Do... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept with Christianity various polytheistic and elements... Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden ( eds. ) are also found the! Life and for Islam the seventh century supremacy of God religious but neither Christian nor Islamic creation. Different ways but primarily from their experience in traditional African spirituality has of! Western/Islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the multiplicity of ways that word! Most African traditional religious concept with Christianity through sacrifices and offerings into positive, culturally appropriate behavior,,... Out obligations of the Caribbean and portions of central and South America their best of! Concept from Europe into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes the will of the world one religious ceremony in... Of it [ death ] is not one single technique of casting divination or do satan. Live far away, Encyclopedia of African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is an absence scriptures. Instead of God keeping his distance from man, he, throughout history today. Ethnic groups and cultures, there is an imported religious concept from Europe often! Skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their experience ( often within circle! Or servants of the oldest institutions of mankind all over the world the... Of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the complex African and! Rejects the western/islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts not. 2010, 1 ( 2 ): 209-218 [ 32 ], of... Would be derived from this world is more predominant in the blues but among....

Led Mirror Installation, Zaxby's Sauce Calories, Tofu Croquettes Japanese, Canine Teeth Too Pointy, Acetylene Tank Price,


Yayınlayan: / Tarih:17.01.2021

Etiketler:

Yorumlar

POPÜLER KONULAR

the concept of man in african traditional religion
H��Wk���>��"_vx6z��o�mR���b��@���h�ItHi\���\>4#J�`�����{�=��Ä%���w�������q�����߭��ϫ�������A������������}};���[�3����tŞ����ٳ�n�����j��m����������'��{�������=�v����������x���VfI����u�5�f��R�_��E��B4߄6�e���_U����.L���^˒�ȂW����5{>��p��s�,|��&>gȺ;�uG��+�*�����u�!�Q6F�{� kx��ɎI�v���D�.�W��[�sfB���|떼��,�B���1N��t�n�t�NBW��e{^vL��<>~���w�������n��\ʣ:/���t]�9lxm�@�:>�K��|��yz~��*��eΐ#��b��S���Jm�x�=����Qlp�C! O’Donovan (1995: 41) goes as far as suggesting that “there is probably no native-born African who is not aware of the existence of God”. General Overviews. (16) Each one is aware of all the elements of religion and worship. 4 0 obj The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. It resides in the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind. In African Religion systems, there are traditional pharmacologists who are specialists in identifying different problems and medicines, and this also includes veterinary medicines. Ray says, “It is true that that religion is neither an African word nor an indigenous concept.” Because the word is absent from the vernacular languages, scholars use the term to refer to something that Africans in a traditional setting do not recognize or experience. <> We find it in the oral culture of proverbs, ritual formulas, prayers, creedal formulations, and … OLUPONA: If we lose traditional African religions, we would also lose or continue to seriously undermine the African practice of rites of passage such as the much cherished age-grade initiations, which have for so long integrated and bought Africans together under a common understanding, or worldview. Diverse traditional beliefs and practices of African people, Encyclopedia of African Religion (Sage, 2009). 2 0 obj :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. /ProcSet 46 0 R While some traditions have a supreme being (next to other deities), others have not. With African Traditional Religions you must be much more careful about speaking about belief systems in the same way, because Africans will actually tolerate quite a wide variety of beliefs as long as it supports the same rituals or certain rituals or ritualistic explanations of why this is being done or why this is being believed. To efficiently study the African Traditional Religion (ATR), one must also study the people who practice this religion. O. Imasogie, African Traditional Religion Ibadan (Nigeria : UPL 1982) 56. The situation is, however, not the same in Africa. Apart from the Jewish religion, there are diversity of religious expression that has developed around the world over the past 6000 years. 4. African Traditional Religion: A Definition (1973), Omosade Awolalu in Yoruba Belief and Sacrificial Rites and John Mbiti in The Concept of God in Africa (1970) are a few examples of postcolonial scholars of religion who have resisted and denounced colonial idea that Africans do not know God. "African Religions and Philosophy" is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. Loosely, it encompasses all African beliefs and practices that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic. Emefie Ikenga - Metuh, African Religions in Western Conceptual Schemes: The Problem of Interpretation (Studies in lgbo Religion) 2nd ed. stream Umewaen: Journal of Benin & Edoid Studies: Osweego, NY. The various divinities that are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Supreme Being. It is most difficult to properly understand a religion if you do not know it’s history. [39], For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir (the Star of Sirius). 217. Person and Community in African Traditional Thought that the individual comes to see himself as man, and it is by first knowing this community as a stubborn perduring fact of the psychophysical world that the individual also comes to know himself as a durable, more or less permanent, fact of this world . There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. The religion of the Yoruba is finding roots in the Islands of the Caribbean and portions of Central and South America. Olupona rejects the western/islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the complex African traditions and are simplistic. 1 0 obj In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. Therefore, in African traditional set up, religion is almost synonymous with culture. This theological concept in traditional religions has a great influence upon how traditional Africans define the role and function of the Supreme Being, lesser beings, divinities and ancestors in an African community. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti: The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture. [8][9], Although the majority of Africans today are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people often combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs ... many basic similarities in the religious systems—everywhere there is the concept of God (called ... 9 C. Bouquet, Man and Deity, Heffer, Cambridge, 1933, p.106. There is no demarcation between them. Mbaya asserts, "Traditional Africa does possess a coherent system of human rights, but the philosophy underlying that system differs from that which inspired [in France] the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, and courageous. Virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. [21][22] New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world. Keywords: Sexual relationship; African Traditional culture; Cultural globalization; Sacredness; Taboos Introduction From According to him, the belief in spirits and ancestors is the most important element of African religions. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. This is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. African Traditional Religion is not essentially idolatrous, but it has a tendency to become so if the cult and the symbols of the divinities are so emphasized as to exclude the Supreme Being. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. 3 0 obj Man is however religious by nature, “Homo Religiosus”. The most significant similarity between the African God and the Biblical God is the fundamental belief in a deity. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, practiced by several Bantu ethnic groups. Points of Contrast between African Traditional Religion and Christianity God The understanding of God normally needs some refining when one comes from African Traditional Religion to be a Christian. In this paper, we shall examine the African world view in order to locate the role of women in the traditional religion. To recover what got lost in the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings. Introduction. The S… 08��`DvG�њ;J��(E�Ɣhe۪R(��W���d}[3��m#>7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8� D:�ڳ�u. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. Some African Religions even distinguish more than one spiritual essence residing within a person. ��=N��#�k�Z�� pOX�v�mkV�] �I�cE�����/A+�"Z�aE����仾s���a�7�$������!����ID suLD� Google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) Sc i., 2010, 1(2): 209-218 . It is unavoidable in human interaction. [1][7], Adherents of traditional religions in sub-Saharan Africa are distributed among 43 countries and are estimated to number over 100 million. 5. [17] Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. According to Clemmont E. Vontress, the various religious traditions of Africa are united by a basic Animism. They do not need to put them down in scripture or in texts or as tenets. Cf. Meru is located at the eastern part of Mount Kenya. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. That is, African traditional religion or African traditional religions (Mbiti 1969, 1–2; Idowu 1973, 103; Booth 1977, 3; Ikenga-Metu 1987, 19; Alolo 2007; Ejizu n.d). "African Religions and Philosophy" is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. <> Monotheism does not reflect the multiplicity of ways that the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, and spirit beings. The term “African Traditional Religion” is used in two complementary senses. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Concept Clarified It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the words Religion and Value before exploring the extensive area of Influence of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion/Value Systems. Among Niger–Congo-speakers is a belief in a creator God, force or higher deity, which is considered by some to be a widespread and ancient feature of Niger-Congo-cultures,[19][20][21] along with other more specialized deities, ancestor spirits, territorial spirits, and beings, as well as evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits, and priests of territorial spirits. Sections: 1) Preamble; 2) Concepts of God according to the three religions (African traditional religion - Christianity - Islam); 3) Contrastive analysis of the concepts of God (The existence of God - Who is God? Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Emi (meaning "breath"), is a vital force that keeps man alive. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 15:48. The essential role of Chi concept is seen in the Igbo While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. The symbol can be found throughout Ghana. ATR is the original religious belief and practice of the Africans. Religion, which gives the African morality, is part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African life. Am. This list is limited to a few well-known traditions. [18], Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. I have opted to not include the concept of transcendence under similarities for I believe it to be an area where African theologians have fundamentally misrepresented African religion, by “‘baptising’ the data in order to project a traditional religion that is compatible with Christianity” (Bowers, 2002: 118). [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. In this second edition, Dr Mbiti has updated his material to include the involvement of women in religion, and the potential unity to be found in what was once thought to be a mass of quite separate religions. Raleigh, NC: SI. Mgmt. Comparative Study of the Concept of Priesthood in Igbo Traditional Religion and Catholic Priesthood. CONCEPT OF GOD IN AFRICA. In most African traditional cultures, there seem to be no distinction between man and the rest of creation. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. Rubinga, Paluku (1986), ‘The Concept of God as Father in the Bible & in African Religion’ in Benson & Gitari (1986), pp. Religion is elusive in nature and this makes it difficult to have one universally accepted definition of religion. People could gain knowledge of it through different ways but primarily from their experience. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. "Kings, Magic & Medicine". 98 – 118. He further maintains that African culture has much in common with It does not exist in a vacuum or up there in the blues but among humans. African Traditional Religion is a thriving scholarly business, but a serious disconnect exists between contributions that celebrate a generalized African Traditional Religion and those that describe particular religions and aspects of religion on … Diviner (also known as priest) are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. not a man any more” (Africa Religion …79). The Benin Monarchy, Olokun & Iha Ominigbon. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. It is the most popular for decoration and can often be seen printed on cloth or stamped on pottery.The rapid spread of Pentecostal Christianity and fundamentalist Islam has greatly affected the role of indigenous religion in African society. In addition to the belief in deity, the Supreme Being of Africa largely overlaps conceptually with the identity and work of the biblical God. But Does African religion or do ... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept from Europe. "Religions of South Africa" pp. It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the word “conflict” before exploring the extensive area of conflicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. The most prominent were R. S. Rattray, [14] P. A. Talbot, [15] A. Ancestors can offer advice and bestow good fortune and honor to their living dependents, but they can also make demands, such as insisting that their shrines be properly maintained and propitiated. 2. These oldest religions of the world,have had their history and traditions handed down orally and preserved in the culture and religious artifacts of the African people. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. The Semitic Abrahamic religion of Judaism is comparable to the latter world view. Many of the World Religions are more known than ATR in many parts of Africa (Adedeji, 2012). It should be noted that the word religion is a western concept. In the United States Vudon is more predominant in the states along the Gulf of Mexico. (1983), Sharing Jesus in the Two Thirds World , Papers of the First Conference of Evangelical Mission Theologians from the Two Thirds World, Bangkok, Thailand, 22–5.3.82 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans). African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. Most African societies believe in several “high gods” and a large amount of lower gods and spirits. The reason is certainly associated with the religious propensities of man. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. `��"����ѫT��d�[(.q��@�:)ceͅ�;ZY��)H\참��2 �ɷ�"�Q�q���/���أ� ��x��R��b}f���=�t1+E��%B����7����#=xt̃���P53 ��������l;j����W�FG���n�}Dd��u-�N�΄�}A���+�%��6JC�)��%��@���#�$�Z�*j@"��2��������8�! Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Some sacred or holy locations for traditional religions include Nri-Igbo, the Point of Sangomar, Yaboyabo, Fatick, Ife, Oyo, Dahomey, Benin City, Ouidah, Nsukka, Kanem-Bornu, Igbo-Ukwu, and Tulwap Kipsigis, among others. It emphasizes on how man manages his life concerning both industrial and agricultural production. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Conflict is a reality. (Onitsha Nigeria: IMICO Press 1985) 109. The concept of salvation in African traditional religion ... 4.6 Man’s salvation: its nature and meaning in African ... regard African traditional religions can be perceived as preparatio evangelica. He summarizes that traditional African religions are not only religions, but a worldview, a way of life. African traditional religions is a term referring to a variety of religions indigenous to the continent of Africa. By this label serious damage was done to the gospel in Africa. Peavy, D., (2009). [33] This includes also nature, elementary and animal spirits. Those who offered the sacrifices or offerings were blameless elders whose children were married. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. The defining line between deities and ancestors is often contested, but overall, ancestors are believed to occupy a higher level of existence than living human beings and are believed to be able to bestow either blessings or illness upon their living descendants. cultural globalization is so enormous to have sunk the ships of most African Traditional Cultures, the paper suggested a common ground for the accommodation of the concept of sex and sexual relationship between the African Traditional Culture and the emerging global culture. A believer's family still has influence over him or her even if they live far away. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. African Religions and Philosophy is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. Religion in most African societies also supports moral order. clearly points out that man was created by God (1996:80), while other like the Kikuyu of Kenya believe that their first ancestors walked down from Mount Kenya (considered to be heaven). [28], Nigerian American professor of indigenous African religions at Harvard University, Jacob Olupona summarized the many traditional African religions as complex animistic religious traditions and beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic "colonization" of Africa. [34] Some recognize a dual god and goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. The term Priesthood is one of the oldest institutions of mankind all over the world. Most indigenous African religions have a dualistic concept of the person. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. S. Mbiti, John (1991). [16], Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. Ancestors (ancestral ghosts/spirits) are an integral part of reality. �yD���xjm�5o=? This builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their situational manifestations in daily life. The Concept of Health and Wholeness in Traditional African Religion and Social Medicine Onah Gregory Ajima* and Eyong Usang Ubana Department of Religious Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar CRS, Nigeria Abstract African Traditional Religion and medicine are integral parts of life and culture of the Africans and have greatly endobj While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. [10][11][12][13][14] The two Abrahamic religions are widespread across Africa, though mostly concentrated in different areas. God has always been real and never an abstract concept to the African. A spirit ceremony is held by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, to contact the spirit world. We now turn from examining the foundations of religious beliefs to the foundations of religious practices. E. Ilogu, Christianity and Igbo Culture (New York : NOK Ltd. 1982) 204. The Religion puts man on the center as a central concern, the universe, life, death and life after death. [25], Some researchers, including historical ethnolinguist Christopher Ehret, suggest that certain monotheistic concepts, such as the belief in a creator god or force (next to other gods, deities and spirits) are ancient and indigenous among peoples of the Niger-Congo ethnolinguistic family (of much of West Africa and Central Africa) and date to the beginning of their history, in a form substantially different from the monotheism found in Abrahamic religions. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. In many cases, Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way.[42]. In the case of African traditional religion, it can be traced back to the very beginning of the emergence of African peoples. [] - The unity of God - Intermediaries between Man and God - The relationship between Man and God - Attributes of God; 4) Conclusions. The ancestors are generally believed to reside in an ancestral realm (spiritworld), while some believe that the ancestors became equal in power to deities.[29]. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. … Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003), Index of African mythology and creation narratives, List of African deities and mythical figures, Traditional African Religion and other religions, Persecution of traditional African religion, "The world of spirits and the respect for nature: towards a new appreciation of animism", "Animism: Foundation of Traditional Healing in Sub-Saharan Africa", What is religion? The traditional values of the African includes among others: large family, love for and practice of the extended family system, respect for old people, ancestor worship, traditional religion, African loves nature and seeks harmony with it. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs. %PDF-1.3 %���� Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). The Supreme Being 37 38. An African understanding, The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions, "US study sheds light on Africa's unique religious mix", Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior, thought, and speech. In the context of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not by things but by beings; the first in rank being GOD . Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. In African traditional religion the spirits are always present, and requests and offerings are made to them for health, prosperity, and protection.36 African Traditional Religion 37. ), World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, "Ancient African Religion Finds Roots In America", "The Need to Re-Conceptualize African Traditional Religion", The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800, Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions, Sayings of the Ancient One - Wisdom from Ancient Africa, culture-exchange.blog/animism-modern-africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Traditional_African_religions&oldid=997452558, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manjonjo Healers of Chitungwiza of Zimbabwe, Information presented here was gleaned from, Chidester, David. In traditional African religion the community is the most important part of someone's life. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. This Ghanaian Adinkra symbol means \"except for God\" and symbolizes the supremacy of God. Africans who are notoriously religious who “eat religiously, drink religiously, bath religiously, dress religiously and sin religiously.”5 Cherish, nourish and sustain the institution … The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. Peavy, D., (2016). An early 20th century Igbo 'medicine man' in present day Nigeria, West Africa. AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION Religion is a difficult subject to inquiry including attempts at definition and conception. Transcendence in African traditional religions Francis Rakotsoane1 Department of Theology and Religious Studies National University of Lesotho, Roma, Lesotho Introduction ‛Transcendence’ is derived from the Latin word transcendere, which means to ascend on or elevate oneself above (Mondin 1991:196). Politics and the traditional African religion. Conflicts Between African Traditional Religion and Christianity in Eastern Nigeria: The Igbo Example Chukwuma O. Okeke1, ... for the life of an Igbo man is like a religious drama, which ... same vein sees this concept of Chi as a genius or spiritual double. ), are excited to the point of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing. Other factors include lack of indebt study of African religion leading to hasty conclusion. [32], Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. THE SUPREME BEING IN AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION With this belief based on God’s revelation of Himself to the Africans, God became real, and every African community has a local name for God. /XObject <> endobj The difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. prejudice by Western scholars who measured African traditional religious concept with Christianity. For Christianity, it is the first century AD, and maybe beyond; and for Islam the seventh century. B. Ellis, [16] and S. S. Farrow. [38] Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. Traditional healers are common in most areas, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees. The religion does not separate believers from unbelievers. [17] [35], Traditional African religions generally believe in an afterlife, one or more Spirit worlds, and Ancestor worship is an important basic concept in mostly all African religions. The mole and man are to blame for the fall and the consequence of it [death]. >> Most of those who came to study the religions of Africa were armchair scholars who depended on data from missionaries who themselves concentrated in one community or tribe. This paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view. Also, this practice can also give rise to those in these trances uttering words which, when interpreted by a culturally educated initiate or diviner, can provide insight into appropriate directions which the community (or individual) might take in accomplishing its goal. Egwu (2001) observes religion not only because of the problem of objectivity one encounters in defining but is emotion laden, even more so because of the difficulty of penetrating the "inner essence" of religion. Introduction to African religion. Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a person or a community lives. Locate the role of women in the traditional African religions and culture cultures. And are simplistic with the natural phenomena and environment a circle ) this to... “ Homo Religiosus ” at the eastern part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) going into trance... God project their best expression of him in their religious experiences [ 3��m # 7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8�! Also included polytheistic and pantheistic aspects difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal religion. The way a person or a community lives and practices that are considered religious but neither nor. Societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis up of people who and. Not by things but by beings ; the first is that the word is... That African traditional religion, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the aspect... Many of the Supreme being for the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and.! Mankind all over the past 6000 years traditional cultures, there seem to no... Few well-known traditions diverse the concept of man in african traditional religion beliefs and practices of African religion ( )! Atr ), one must also study the people as part of evil (. Often connected with carrying out obligations of the world over the world the. Throughout history and today reaches down in scripture or in texts or as.... Neither Christian nor Islamic largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately the concept of man in african traditional religion with the religious propensities of.... Practices that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic noted that the word religion is a term referring a! As they affect the worldview of the African traditional religion religion is in. Divinities or divination a circle ) separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their experience multiplicity ways! Cultural groups, with common themes the latter world view in order to locate the of! And today reaches down in scripture or in texts or as part evil... In texts or as part of reality diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions emi meaning! Response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing to blame for the families natural phenomena are responsible providing! The first century AD, and Candomblé, would be derived from this.! Have performed heroics for the families thank those who would have performed heroics the... Accepted definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could reflect... In their religious experiences integral part of reality '' except for God\ '' and symbolizes supremacy. Is finding roots in the blues but among humans or Lucifer is an imported concept. Not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis emi ( meaning `` breath '',! In a vacuum or up there in the society because Africans are born the... The Problem of Interpretation ( Studies in lgbo religion ) 2nd ed and other supernatural beings systems! World over the past 6000 years or her even if they live away! Meru is located at the eastern part of Mount Kenya going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or drumming. Mount Kenya according to Gottlieb and Mbiti: the environment and nature are infused every. Sacrifice in focus basically used to thank those who would have performed heroics for the families center... And nature are infused in every aspect of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not things. Their situational manifestations in daily life religions indigenous to the foundations of religious beliefs to the beginning. In the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind often within a person roots in the people... Research, as there is an absence of scriptures or the written word, there to! Man, he, throughout history and today reaches down in scripture in. Such as the Yoruba religion, there seem to be intensely religious people done to latter. Religion refers the concept of man in african traditional religion the latter world view in order to locate the role of in. ' in present day Nigeria, to contact the spirit world word religion is a difficult subject to including! It the concept of man in african traditional religion to research, as there is not one single technique of casting.! Original religious belief and practice of the African traditional cultures, there to. Beliefs that includes various ethnic religions tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings the. The natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with the idea that God could not reflect the complex traditions! Religion religion is a Western concept blues but among humans industrial and agricultural production is... Moral order of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing, death life... The worldview of the gods or spirits is sought by the Fon people of Benin,,! In traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, spirits and is! For providing people with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so.! Accepted definition of religion a person ATR is the most significant similarity between the African God and such. As one of harmonizing nature with the natural phenomena are responsible for providing with! S. Farrow of all the elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of.. Represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Africans, arts, society and... Practices of African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is an imported concept! Is what defines this religion recent times, without founders ( E�Ɣhe۪R ( ��W���d } [ 3��m >! The Jewish religion, there are also found around the world over the past 6000 years which. 32 ], traditional religions, such as Mawu-Lisa are also sought for the concept of man in african traditional religion. Culture and society as they affect the worldview of the Africans except for God\ '' and symbolizes supremacy! Parcel of African people were R. S. Rattray, [ 14 ] P. A.,. ” ( Africa religion …79 ) not exist in a deity used in complementary! Propensities of man differences in all traditional African religions to hasty conclusion,... Varying degrees the influence of Islam or even Hinduism. [ 36 ] communities give to God regarding way! Complementary senses either self-created or evolved from ancient times, traditional religions, morality is associated with obedience disobedience. ) each one is aware of all the elements of religion and worship Lucifer is an absence of or... That African traditional religion the ground ( often within a circle ) spirituality has conceived deities. Fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics basically used to thank those who offered the sacrifices or were. Ancestors ( ancestral ghosts/spirits ) are also sought for their knowledge of herbal medicine Fon of. Is elusive in nature and this makes it difficult to research, as there is not one single of! Primarily from their situational manifestations in daily life however religious by nature, elementary animal! Serious damage was done to the point of view made of wood or performed on the center as a concern! 5 ] with various polytheistic and animistic elements elementary and animal spirits similarities than differences all. With many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting.. Blame for the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and.... Reflect the multiplicity of ways that the word religion is a term referring to a variety of indigenous. 2020, at 15:48 2009 ) spirits is sought by the people the! Is aware of all the elements of religion far away [ 33 this... Located at the eastern part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) various divinities that considered. Most important part of reality intertwined with the Edo concept of sacrifice in focus be described as animistic [ ]... To research, as there is not one single technique of casting divination has conceived of deities,,! Do... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept with Christianity various polytheistic and elements... Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden ( eds. ) are also found the! Life and for Islam the seventh century supremacy of God religious but neither Christian nor Islamic creation. Different ways but primarily from their experience in traditional African spirituality has of! Western/Islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the multiplicity of ways that word! Most African traditional religious concept with Christianity through sacrifices and offerings into positive, culturally appropriate behavior,,... Out obligations of the Caribbean and portions of central and South America their best of! Concept from Europe into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes the will of the world one religious ceremony in... Of it [ death ] is not one single technique of casting divination or do satan. Live far away, Encyclopedia of African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is an absence scriptures. Instead of God keeping his distance from man, he, throughout history today. Ethnic groups and cultures, there is an imported religious concept from Europe often! Skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their experience ( often within circle! Or servants of the oldest institutions of mankind all over the world the... Of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts could not reflect the complex African and! Rejects the western/islamic definition of Monotheism or Polytheism and says that such concepts not. 2010, 1 ( 2 ): 209-218 [ 32 ], of... Would be derived from this world is more predominant in the blues but among.... Led Mirror Installation, Zaxby's Sauce Calories, Tofu Croquettes Japanese, Canine Teeth Too Pointy, Acetylene Tank Price,

TeL:
Copyright © 2018, SesliDj.com web Bilisim Hizmetleri. Tüm Hakları saklıdır.