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characteristics of chicken meat

characteristics of chicken meat

The values of pH in breast muscles of the treatments K56 days and K81 days were statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the treatments O56 days and O81 days (pH 5.96 and pH 5.98, and pH 5.75 and pH 5.80, respectively). In order to ensure the deposition of desirable fatty acids into poultry muscle tissue, chickens should be fed diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Figure 11.20. The points correspond to the experimental measurements and the lines correspond to the predictions of the model, Figure 3.15. Available from: Enrichment of chicken meat with functional ingredients, Effects of omega-3 fatty acids, carnosine and selenium on human health, Department of Applied Zootechnics, Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia, The Scientific Centre of Excellence for Personalized Health Care, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia. The development of methods that can provide a characteristic metabolomic profile and that can be used for the determination of the geographical origin, therefore, can provide a valuable tool for the authentication and traceability of foods such as chicken. Chicken breast muscle had higher content of carnosine than thighs and drumsticks [18, 104, 105, 106]. (2013) validated an HPLC-UV methodology to determine cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and tyramine using perchloric acid (5%) and benzoyl chloride in extraction and derivatization steps, respectively, in an isocratic system with a UV detector at 198 nm. 2010). No quality changes were observed in the treated eggs. Tropomyosin was not significantly affected due to irradiation or because of thermal conditions (from 8.4 ± 0.4 at 0 kGy to 8.4 ± 0.3 at 7 kGy) (Niciforovic et al., 1999). After being tumbled, the chicken breast is thermally treated either with steam or in a bath of water at around 76–80 °C until it is fully cooked through. When considering the contradictory results of research into the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on various diseases, there is further research required to determine the exact protective mechanism of these fatty acids not only against the abovementioned diseases, but also against some other diseases. Additional measurements of the dielectric properties of chicken meat were made in the 200-MHz to 50-GHz range to study potential correlations between those properties and quality attributes with respect to aging (Trabelsi, 2013), comparison of intact and ground broiler breast meat (Samuel and Trabelsi, 2012), and for predicting meat quality (Samuel et al., 2012). White or light meat comes from the breast and wings. The authors concluded that feeding treatment influenced the protein content in meat of thighs of females only (C = 19.27% E = 17.76%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the same group had the highest content of n-3 PUFA (1.15 mg/g), while the least content of those fatty acids was determined in the control group (0.26 mg/g). Dielectric constant of chicken breast meat samples with indicated water holding capacity and pH, as a function of sample-holder temperature at 2.936 GHz (Trabelsi and Nelson, 2009). Some examples on the use of cold plasma in poultry products are discussed in the following paragraphs and additional examples are cited in Table 5.2. Carvalho et al. Low selenium status is associated with poor immune function. Healthy lifestyle, which includes consumption of chicken meat, fruit, legumes, nuts, whole grains and vegetable oils, is associated with reduced risk of death in patients suffering from diabetes [35]. Boulianne , M. and King , A.J. For all samples, the dielectric constant decreases with increasing frequency with a slope change at about 4 GHz. Lourdes García-SánchezBeatriz MeleroJordi Rovira, in Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 2018. At low temperatures, dielectric properties of the chicken breast meat samples behave in a similar fashion to those of distilled water, with a sharp increase around 0°C. Additionally, recent food scares such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in 1996 and the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth (FMD) crisis have had a lasting negative effect on consumers’ perception of red meat and given a significant boost to poultry consumption (Kennedy et al. The research of Živković et al. The quality of chicken meat is influenced by a number of factors like genotype, sex, feeding treatment, production technology, transport and pre-slaughter handling, all of which should be taken into account. For bone-in cuts, that may be next to the bone.” White and dark chicken meat is due to different types of muscle. Chicken (Manok) The healthy aspects of chicken vary according to whether the meat is light or dark and whether it is skinless. The color of foods can be defined as the interaction of a light, an object, an observer and the surroundings of the food. The variation of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor with frequency at 24°C for fresh chicken breast meat of similar WHC and variable pH values are shown in Figures 11.17 and 11.18. Experimental group of chickens had lighter breast meat color than the control. The quality attributes of chicken meat are of interest to both producers and consumers. Science on nutrition has developed over the years, and new analytical methods have enabled the determination of various functional food ingredients that have a beneficial effect on human health and that help to reduce the disease risks. So what's it supposed to look like, anyway? The variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor with temperature at 2.936 GHz for chicken breast meat samples and distilled water are shown in Figures 11.20 and 11.21. High protein content makes chicken meat an ideal foodstuff for all consumers who need high-quality, easily degradable protein (athletes, children, the elderly). 2004). Chicken meat receives its flavor primarily from unsaturated aldehydes, which originate from linoleic acid in the first place. In their study about influences of transport-caused stress on the meat quality parameters, Doktor and Połtowicz [55] stated that after 42 days of fattening of Hubbard Flex chickens, their treatment before and during transport to slaughterhouse had statistically significant influence only on pH1, while other meat quality parameters were not influenced (pH2, meat color (L*, a*, b*), drip loss (%), water holding capacity—WHC (%), shear force (N)). S. Kelly, ... G. van der Veer, in Food Chain Integrity, 2011. S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium were inoculated on egg shells (5.5–6.5 log/eggshell) and treated under a resistive barrier discharge (RBD) cold plasma device at 15 kV. These potentially harmful ingredients are saturated fat, heme iron, sodium, N-nitroso compounds and aromatic amines produced by high temperature cooking, so the consumption of red meat represents a risk of developing cancers. did not determine the influence of carnosine supplementation (0.5% from 1st–21st day and from 22nd–42nd day of fattening) on the growth performances [101]. The occurrence of Keshan (endemic cardiomyopathy) and Kashin-Beck (endemic osteochondropathy) diseases are known to happen due to low selenium status in human population, which is a consequence of selenium-deficient soil, especially in northeastern to southwestern China [139]. classified the chicken meat as normal, with measured values of L* = 51.42, a* = 7.26 and b* = 6.74, and as PSE meat with measured values L* = 57.63, a* = 2.11 and b* = 5.46 [62]. According to the data of Bernstein et al., by replacing meals with red meat with white chicken meat, the risk of cardiovascular disease occurrence can be lowered by 19% [31]. Researches confirmed its protective role in lipid oxidation [137] and protein oxidation [138]. supplemented histidine in the amount of 1 g/kg of feed and achieved the increase in carnosine concentration in chicken breast muscle for 64%, as well as the increase of anserine for 10% [100]. In general terms, microbial inactivation in chicken meat using cold plasma has been limited under the tested conditions, as shown in Table 5.2. Although indications that dielectric spectroscopy has potential for determining quality attributes of chicken breast meat from measurement of their dielectric properties, much further research is necessary to determine whether such techniques might provide any practically useful methods for quality measurements. carried out a comprehensive review of literature on the occurrence of esophageal cancer, and concluded that there was a reverse correlation between the number of chicken meat meals a week and the risk of developing esophageal cancer [39]. They are often assessed through measurement of physical properties, including color, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), drip loss, cook yield, and texture (Warner–Bratzler shear force value). Other plasma studies have been focused on the inactivation of pathogens on chicken meat and chicken skin, which often offer protection to the microbial cells against common disinfection agents. 2001; Yeung and Yee, 2002; Kennedy et al. In thigh muscles (m. biceps femoris), the value of CIE a* reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in meat of male chickens, while in female chickens the values of CIE b* increased significantly (P < 0.05). Chicken meat is also a good source of some minerals and vitamins (Table 2). Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis, Georgios Tziatzios, in Irradiation of Food Commodities, 2010. The procedures for determining these properties are tedious and time consuming, and they require various types of laboratory equipment. Meat should have a normal colour that is uniform throughout the entire cut. This chapter is a part of the research unit “Research, Manufacturing and Medical Testing of Functional Food”, within “The Scientific Centre of Excellence for Personalized Health Care”, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, supported by the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Croatia. Myosin is the major construction protein of chicken meat (Niciforovic et al., 1999). [97]. The authors pointed out that breast muscle tissue in the group P3 contained significantly more selenium (0.265 mg/kg tissue) than groups P2 (0.183 mg Se/kg tissue) and P1 (0.087 mg/kg tissue, P < 0.05). For that reason, as an alternative to fish oil, scientists use vegetable oils as supplements to chicken feed (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower and linseed oils), as well as combinations of those oils [11, 12, 77, 87]. The International Commission on Illumination lists three values: CIE L*, a* and b*. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the most present are oleic and linoleic acids, α-linolenic and arachidonic acids are represented in small amounts. Interestingly, two separate groups of samples could be discerned within the Chinese set. 13 ) Avian influenza (a.k.a. Light meat with skin contains the lowest amount of cholesterol of all chicken types. Poultry Sci. The same authors stated the cooking loss of meat classified as of color: 20.96% for PSE meat, 25.77% for normal meat and 21.32% for DFD meat. DHA is an integral part of all cell membranes, and it is especially represented in the brain tissue. The country with the highest consumption of chicken meat in the world is the US (over 50 kg/capita/year; Magdelaine et al. Myosin molecules suffered conformational changes by γ-irradiation. Chicken meat is appropriate for quick and simple preparation, yet it offers a variety of combinations with different foodstuffs, thus making itself as a usual choice of consumers faced with modern lifestyle. Wings can be broken down into three parts: wing tip, winglette, and wing drumette (Figure 30). Also, the complex-plane representations of the dielectric properties of chicken breast meat samples indicate a broad relaxation that is typical of bound water with different degrees of binding. Changes in consumers’ lifestyle in developed countries have influenced the meat market by changing the demand and supply of certain types of meat, which the food industry used as an advantage to market so called “fast food” and more recently also “functional food”. Supplementation of oils to chicken diets and their effects on enrichment of thigh muscles with n-3 PUFA. The authors assumed that the surplus of selenium in feed of the P3 group was required for saturation of various antioxidative selenoenzymes in cells, since it was noticed that the value of lipid oxidation in that group was the lowest. Intensive researches into the effects of different diets on the content and profile of fatty acids in chicken meat are carried out, with the aim to produce meat with increased portion of n-3 PUFA and to retain organoleptic properties that are acceptable to consumers. Furthermore, Kralik et al. Because dielectric properties can be rapidly sensed, those properties of fresh chicken meat were measured and examined for correlations between dielectric properties and some of the quality attributes. Low selenium status was connected with pre-eclampsia [144] and premature birth [145] in women. Chicken, broilers or fryers, meat and skin, cooked, roasted *all the values are displayed for the amount of 100 grams Important nutritional characteristics for Chicken meat Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from −20°C to 25°C (Trabelsi and Nelson, 2009; Trabelsi, 2012). This fact suggests that there must be other sources of contamination. If sold in the mould, the mould is vacuum packed. Yan and Kim reported the efficient usage of microalgae in enrichment of poultry products (meat and eggs) with DHA [14]. reported that the chicken genotype did not influence the CIE L* (lightness) and CIE b* (yellowness) values referring to meat color [45]. In both food groups, chicken meat is highly represented [3]. Hubbard ♀ = CIE L* 49.97 and ♂ = CIE L* 52.61). Results of studies into the enrichment of chicken meat with carnosine through implementation of different dietary treatments indicated the need for further investigations in order to determine the most efficient dietary treatment for synthesis and deposition of carnosine in chicken muscle tissues [19, 100, 101, 107, 108, 109]. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. [54] studied the influence of keeping systems (K = conventional and O = organic) and duration of fattening of chickens (56 and 81 days) on the quality of chicken meat, and they confirmed that breast and thigh meat of chickens kept in organic production had lower WHC values and pH24h than meat of chickens fattened conventionally. “Always check the temperature with the thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the cut. Such ingredients, called nutricines, have an important biological activity in human cells [65]. This means that the increased content of selenium in feed affects the increase of the mentioned fatty acids in thigh muscles (P < 0.05). In general, carnosine is more concentrated in white muscle tissue than in dark tissue [134], which was also confirmed in the research by Kralik et al., within which it was determined that chicken breast muscle contained higher concentrations of carnosine than the thigh muscle [101]. The main issues of concern in intensive meat chicken production systems are keeping diseases out (biosecurity), monitoring bird health, chick quality, preparing the poultry house for chickens, placing chicks, brooding, the growing period, waterer and water management, vaccination, lighting, feeding, catching and transport, disposal of dead birds and waste, and improving carcass quality. Referring to all other meat quality parameters of both tested tissue (breasts and thighs), chicken meat from organic production had better values than the meat produced in conventional fattening system (cooking loss %, CIE L*, CIE a*, CIE b* and shear value kg/cm2). Global egg consumption decreased significantly in the last part of the twentieth century due to concerns about cholesterol content, but lately it has started to recover. Therefore, red meat is associated with a higher risk of cancers, while white meat shows neutral or moderately protective correlation to cancer occurrence [36, 37]. describes the influence of extruded linseed in chicken feed on the physico-chemical and sensory traits of meat [47]. It is customary to look into the frequency dependence of the dielectric loss factor to identify these relaxations. The woody breast condition affects texture characteristics of both raw and cooked chicken breast meat The wooden breast condition (WBC) is a muscle abnormality observed in chicken breast meat ( Pectoralis major ) that is an emerging challenge to the poultry industry. [129] and Tavazzi et al. The color of meat can be determined visually or using instruments (colorimeters). Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Duffield-Lillico et al. Changes in our lifestyle and nutrition can significantly affect the decrease of that disease occurrence. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. For each chicken breast sample, the plot consists of two distinct sections: a linear section corresponding to the lower frequencies, where the dielectric response is dominated by ionic conduction, and a circular arc, with its center below the ε′-axis, which represents the broad relaxation taking place at higher frequencies and is characteristic of the dielectric response of bound water (Trabelsi and Nelson, 2006). Marbling is small streaks of fat that are found within the muscle and can be seen in the meat cut. The mechanism of conversion into DHA is still not fully known, yet is believed that this process is supported by the enzyme desaturase ∆4 [73]. A low-sodium product can easily be obtained by reducing the level of salt in the cooked chicken breast to a very low level and by adding only a small amount of salt to the gelatin solution. In this case, it is scientifically proven that niacin affects the increase of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, but it does not affect the improvement of cardiovascular disease state [23, 24]. Free-range chicken meat facility. The solid product is sold either in or out of the mould. The content of fat in thighs was ranging from 8.97% (7.5% linseed) to 9.85% (combination 10% rapeseed + 10% linseed), and in breasts it was 6.79% (7.5% linseed). Relatively low sales prices of chicken meat, in comparison to other types of meat, speak in favor of the increased chicken meat consumption. Most of the meat chickens currently are produced under a contract in which the farmer provides the housing, equipment and labour, while the company provides the chicks, feed, medication, transportation and supervision. According to Zhang and Barbut, meat color typical to PSE meat is L* > 53, the meat of normal quality has the values ranging between 46 < L* < 53, and the DFD meat has the value L* < 46 [63]. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. The authors concluded that higher amounts of histidine can cause the growth depression and the increase in feed conversion. In that sense, it is important to avoid drinking untreated water or milk or swallowing water while swimming, and washing hands thoroughly, always before handling food or eating, and especially after having contact with animals and pets or after children play in playgrounds or gardens. In order to enrich chicken meat with carnosine, Kralik et al. When compared to cholesterol content, white chicken meat does not differ much from other types of meat, however, if considering other benefits (more protein, less total fat, less saturated fat and less calories), it has better nutritional quality and therefore, it is recommended for consumption to anyone who takes care of diet and health. The feeding treatment had effect on the breast meat color (P < 0.05). Chicken meat farm with four houses each housing 25 000 birds. One of the features that differentiate it from most other birds is that it has a comb and two wattles. By this way, chicken meat becomes a foodstuff with added value, which, in addition to high-quality nutritional composition, also contains ingredients that are beneficial to human health. (2014) studied the use of essential oils clove, sweet basil, and lime oils and the main components of each one, eugenol, β-ocimene, and d-limonene (5–20 μL/mL), respectively, together with cold plasma to inactivate target pathogens on egg shells. The effect of breed on carcass characteristics of chicken meat is presented in Table 2.The two breeds differed significantly in carcass characteristics with slaughter weight and carcass weights being higher in broilers than in indigenous chickens (P < 0.05).This is due to the fact that broilers are fast growing and specifically bred for meat production. Low pH values stimulate the oxidation of myoglobin (pink color) and oxyhemoglobin (red color) to metamyoglobin (brown meat color). About 75% of the consumers indicated purchasing chicken meat at least once a week or more … Consumer Attitudes Toward Storing and Thawing Chicken and Effects of the Common Thawing Practices on Some Quality Characteristics of Frozen Chicken Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. Comparable work has been carried out on chicken meat and has allowed the development of an equivalent molecule with a molar mass of 1,309.91 g/mole. The supply of plant with selenium depends on its availability in the soil, therefore, plants from different areas have different selenium content. The block is then vacuum packed and stored between 0 and 4 °C.

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characteristics of chicken meat
The values of pH in breast muscles of the treatments K56 days and K81 days were statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the treatments O56 days and O81 days (pH 5.96 and pH 5.98, and pH 5.75 and pH 5.80, respectively). In order to ensure the deposition of desirable fatty acids into poultry muscle tissue, chickens should be fed diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Figure 11.20. The points correspond to the experimental measurements and the lines correspond to the predictions of the model, Figure 3.15. Available from: Enrichment of chicken meat with functional ingredients, Effects of omega-3 fatty acids, carnosine and selenium on human health, Department of Applied Zootechnics, Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia, The Scientific Centre of Excellence for Personalized Health Care, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia. The development of methods that can provide a characteristic metabolomic profile and that can be used for the determination of the geographical origin, therefore, can provide a valuable tool for the authentication and traceability of foods such as chicken. Chicken breast muscle had higher content of carnosine than thighs and drumsticks [18, 104, 105, 106]. (2013) validated an HPLC-UV methodology to determine cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and tyramine using perchloric acid (5%) and benzoyl chloride in extraction and derivatization steps, respectively, in an isocratic system with a UV detector at 198 nm. 2010). No quality changes were observed in the treated eggs. Tropomyosin was not significantly affected due to irradiation or because of thermal conditions (from 8.4 ± 0.4 at 0 kGy to 8.4 ± 0.3 at 7 kGy) (Niciforovic et al., 1999). After being tumbled, the chicken breast is thermally treated either with steam or in a bath of water at around 76–80 °C until it is fully cooked through. When considering the contradictory results of research into the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on various diseases, there is further research required to determine the exact protective mechanism of these fatty acids not only against the abovementioned diseases, but also against some other diseases. Additional measurements of the dielectric properties of chicken meat were made in the 200-MHz to 50-GHz range to study potential correlations between those properties and quality attributes with respect to aging (Trabelsi, 2013), comparison of intact and ground broiler breast meat (Samuel and Trabelsi, 2012), and for predicting meat quality (Samuel et al., 2012). White or light meat comes from the breast and wings. The authors concluded that feeding treatment influenced the protein content in meat of thighs of females only (C = 19.27% E = 17.76%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the same group had the highest content of n-3 PUFA (1.15 mg/g), while the least content of those fatty acids was determined in the control group (0.26 mg/g). Dielectric constant of chicken breast meat samples with indicated water holding capacity and pH, as a function of sample-holder temperature at 2.936 GHz (Trabelsi and Nelson, 2009). Some examples on the use of cold plasma in poultry products are discussed in the following paragraphs and additional examples are cited in Table 5.2. Carvalho et al. Low selenium status is associated with poor immune function. Healthy lifestyle, which includes consumption of chicken meat, fruit, legumes, nuts, whole grains and vegetable oils, is associated with reduced risk of death in patients suffering from diabetes [35]. Boulianne , M. and King , A.J. For all samples, the dielectric constant decreases with increasing frequency with a slope change at about 4 GHz. Lourdes García-SánchezBeatriz MeleroJordi Rovira, in Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 2018. At low temperatures, dielectric properties of the chicken breast meat samples behave in a similar fashion to those of distilled water, with a sharp increase around 0°C. Additionally, recent food scares such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in 1996 and the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth (FMD) crisis have had a lasting negative effect on consumers’ perception of red meat and given a significant boost to poultry consumption (Kennedy et al. The research of Živković et al. The quality of chicken meat is influenced by a number of factors like genotype, sex, feeding treatment, production technology, transport and pre-slaughter handling, all of which should be taken into account. For bone-in cuts, that may be next to the bone.” White and dark chicken meat is due to different types of muscle. Chicken (Manok) The healthy aspects of chicken vary according to whether the meat is light or dark and whether it is skinless. The color of foods can be defined as the interaction of a light, an object, an observer and the surroundings of the food. The variation of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor with frequency at 24°C for fresh chicken breast meat of similar WHC and variable pH values are shown in Figures 11.17 and 11.18. Experimental group of chickens had lighter breast meat color than the control. The quality attributes of chicken meat are of interest to both producers and consumers. Science on nutrition has developed over the years, and new analytical methods have enabled the determination of various functional food ingredients that have a beneficial effect on human health and that help to reduce the disease risks. So what's it supposed to look like, anyway? The variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor with temperature at 2.936 GHz for chicken breast meat samples and distilled water are shown in Figures 11.20 and 11.21. High protein content makes chicken meat an ideal foodstuff for all consumers who need high-quality, easily degradable protein (athletes, children, the elderly). 2004). Chicken meat receives its flavor primarily from unsaturated aldehydes, which originate from linoleic acid in the first place. In their study about influences of transport-caused stress on the meat quality parameters, Doktor and Połtowicz [55] stated that after 42 days of fattening of Hubbard Flex chickens, their treatment before and during transport to slaughterhouse had statistically significant influence only on pH1, while other meat quality parameters were not influenced (pH2, meat color (L*, a*, b*), drip loss (%), water holding capacity—WHC (%), shear force (N)). S. Kelly, ... G. van der Veer, in Food Chain Integrity, 2011. S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium were inoculated on egg shells (5.5–6.5 log/eggshell) and treated under a resistive barrier discharge (RBD) cold plasma device at 15 kV. These potentially harmful ingredients are saturated fat, heme iron, sodium, N-nitroso compounds and aromatic amines produced by high temperature cooking, so the consumption of red meat represents a risk of developing cancers. did not determine the influence of carnosine supplementation (0.5% from 1st–21st day and from 22nd–42nd day of fattening) on the growth performances [101]. The occurrence of Keshan (endemic cardiomyopathy) and Kashin-Beck (endemic osteochondropathy) diseases are known to happen due to low selenium status in human population, which is a consequence of selenium-deficient soil, especially in northeastern to southwestern China [139]. classified the chicken meat as normal, with measured values of L* = 51.42, a* = 7.26 and b* = 6.74, and as PSE meat with measured values L* = 57.63, a* = 2.11 and b* = 5.46 [62]. According to the data of Bernstein et al., by replacing meals with red meat with white chicken meat, the risk of cardiovascular disease occurrence can be lowered by 19% [31]. Researches confirmed its protective role in lipid oxidation [137] and protein oxidation [138]. supplemented histidine in the amount of 1 g/kg of feed and achieved the increase in carnosine concentration in chicken breast muscle for 64%, as well as the increase of anserine for 10% [100]. In general terms, microbial inactivation in chicken meat using cold plasma has been limited under the tested conditions, as shown in Table 5.2. Although indications that dielectric spectroscopy has potential for determining quality attributes of chicken breast meat from measurement of their dielectric properties, much further research is necessary to determine whether such techniques might provide any practically useful methods for quality measurements. carried out a comprehensive review of literature on the occurrence of esophageal cancer, and concluded that there was a reverse correlation between the number of chicken meat meals a week and the risk of developing esophageal cancer [39]. They are often assessed through measurement of physical properties, including color, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), drip loss, cook yield, and texture (Warner–Bratzler shear force value). Other plasma studies have been focused on the inactivation of pathogens on chicken meat and chicken skin, which often offer protection to the microbial cells against common disinfection agents. 2001; Yeung and Yee, 2002; Kennedy et al. In thigh muscles (m. biceps femoris), the value of CIE a* reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in meat of male chickens, while in female chickens the values of CIE b* increased significantly (P < 0.05). Chicken meat is also a good source of some minerals and vitamins (Table 2). Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis, Georgios Tziatzios, in Irradiation of Food Commodities, 2010. The procedures for determining these properties are tedious and time consuming, and they require various types of laboratory equipment. Meat should have a normal colour that is uniform throughout the entire cut. This chapter is a part of the research unit “Research, Manufacturing and Medical Testing of Functional Food”, within “The Scientific Centre of Excellence for Personalized Health Care”, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, supported by the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Croatia. Myosin is the major construction protein of chicken meat (Niciforovic et al., 1999). [97]. The authors pointed out that breast muscle tissue in the group P3 contained significantly more selenium (0.265 mg/kg tissue) than groups P2 (0.183 mg Se/kg tissue) and P1 (0.087 mg/kg tissue, P < 0.05). For that reason, as an alternative to fish oil, scientists use vegetable oils as supplements to chicken feed (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower and linseed oils), as well as combinations of those oils [11, 12, 77, 87]. The International Commission on Illumination lists three values: CIE L*, a* and b*. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the most present are oleic and linoleic acids, α-linolenic and arachidonic acids are represented in small amounts. Interestingly, two separate groups of samples could be discerned within the Chinese set. 13 ) Avian influenza (a.k.a. Light meat with skin contains the lowest amount of cholesterol of all chicken types. Poultry Sci. The same authors stated the cooking loss of meat classified as of color: 20.96% for PSE meat, 25.77% for normal meat and 21.32% for DFD meat. DHA is an integral part of all cell membranes, and it is especially represented in the brain tissue. The country with the highest consumption of chicken meat in the world is the US (over 50 kg/capita/year; Magdelaine et al. Myosin molecules suffered conformational changes by γ-irradiation. Chicken meat is appropriate for quick and simple preparation, yet it offers a variety of combinations with different foodstuffs, thus making itself as a usual choice of consumers faced with modern lifestyle. Wings can be broken down into three parts: wing tip, winglette, and wing drumette (Figure 30). Also, the complex-plane representations of the dielectric properties of chicken breast meat samples indicate a broad relaxation that is typical of bound water with different degrees of binding. Changes in consumers’ lifestyle in developed countries have influenced the meat market by changing the demand and supply of certain types of meat, which the food industry used as an advantage to market so called “fast food” and more recently also “functional food”. Supplementation of oils to chicken diets and their effects on enrichment of thigh muscles with n-3 PUFA. The authors assumed that the surplus of selenium in feed of the P3 group was required for saturation of various antioxidative selenoenzymes in cells, since it was noticed that the value of lipid oxidation in that group was the lowest. Intensive researches into the effects of different diets on the content and profile of fatty acids in chicken meat are carried out, with the aim to produce meat with increased portion of n-3 PUFA and to retain organoleptic properties that are acceptable to consumers. Furthermore, Kralik et al. Because dielectric properties can be rapidly sensed, those properties of fresh chicken meat were measured and examined for correlations between dielectric properties and some of the quality attributes. Low selenium status was connected with pre-eclampsia [144] and premature birth [145] in women. Chicken, broilers or fryers, meat and skin, cooked, roasted *all the values are displayed for the amount of 100 grams Important nutritional characteristics for Chicken meat Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from −20°C to 25°C (Trabelsi and Nelson, 2009; Trabelsi, 2012). This fact suggests that there must be other sources of contamination. If sold in the mould, the mould is vacuum packed. Yan and Kim reported the efficient usage of microalgae in enrichment of poultry products (meat and eggs) with DHA [14]. reported that the chicken genotype did not influence the CIE L* (lightness) and CIE b* (yellowness) values referring to meat color [45]. In both food groups, chicken meat is highly represented [3]. Hubbard ♀ = CIE L* 49.97 and ♂ = CIE L* 52.61). Results of studies into the enrichment of chicken meat with carnosine through implementation of different dietary treatments indicated the need for further investigations in order to determine the most efficient dietary treatment for synthesis and deposition of carnosine in chicken muscle tissues [19, 100, 101, 107, 108, 109]. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. [54] studied the influence of keeping systems (K = conventional and O = organic) and duration of fattening of chickens (56 and 81 days) on the quality of chicken meat, and they confirmed that breast and thigh meat of chickens kept in organic production had lower WHC values and pH24h than meat of chickens fattened conventionally. “Always check the temperature with the thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the cut. Such ingredients, called nutricines, have an important biological activity in human cells [65]. This means that the increased content of selenium in feed affects the increase of the mentioned fatty acids in thigh muscles (P < 0.05). In general, carnosine is more concentrated in white muscle tissue than in dark tissue [134], which was also confirmed in the research by Kralik et al., within which it was determined that chicken breast muscle contained higher concentrations of carnosine than the thigh muscle [101]. The main issues of concern in intensive meat chicken production systems are keeping diseases out (biosecurity), monitoring bird health, chick quality, preparing the poultry house for chickens, placing chicks, brooding, the growing period, waterer and water management, vaccination, lighting, feeding, catching and transport, disposal of dead birds and waste, and improving carcass quality. Referring to all other meat quality parameters of both tested tissue (breasts and thighs), chicken meat from organic production had better values than the meat produced in conventional fattening system (cooking loss %, CIE L*, CIE a*, CIE b* and shear value kg/cm2). Global egg consumption decreased significantly in the last part of the twentieth century due to concerns about cholesterol content, but lately it has started to recover. Therefore, red meat is associated with a higher risk of cancers, while white meat shows neutral or moderately protective correlation to cancer occurrence [36, 37]. describes the influence of extruded linseed in chicken feed on the physico-chemical and sensory traits of meat [47]. It is customary to look into the frequency dependence of the dielectric loss factor to identify these relaxations. The woody breast condition affects texture characteristics of both raw and cooked chicken breast meat The wooden breast condition (WBC) is a muscle abnormality observed in chicken breast meat ( Pectoralis major ) that is an emerging challenge to the poultry industry. [129] and Tavazzi et al. The color of meat can be determined visually or using instruments (colorimeters). Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Duffield-Lillico et al. Changes in our lifestyle and nutrition can significantly affect the decrease of that disease occurrence. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. For each chicken breast sample, the plot consists of two distinct sections: a linear section corresponding to the lower frequencies, where the dielectric response is dominated by ionic conduction, and a circular arc, with its center below the ε′-axis, which represents the broad relaxation taking place at higher frequencies and is characteristic of the dielectric response of bound water (Trabelsi and Nelson, 2006). Marbling is small streaks of fat that are found within the muscle and can be seen in the meat cut. The mechanism of conversion into DHA is still not fully known, yet is believed that this process is supported by the enzyme desaturase ∆4 [73]. A low-sodium product can easily be obtained by reducing the level of salt in the cooked chicken breast to a very low level and by adding only a small amount of salt to the gelatin solution. In this case, it is scientifically proven that niacin affects the increase of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, but it does not affect the improvement of cardiovascular disease state [23, 24]. Free-range chicken meat facility. The solid product is sold either in or out of the mould. The content of fat in thighs was ranging from 8.97% (7.5% linseed) to 9.85% (combination 10% rapeseed + 10% linseed), and in breasts it was 6.79% (7.5% linseed). Relatively low sales prices of chicken meat, in comparison to other types of meat, speak in favor of the increased chicken meat consumption. Most of the meat chickens currently are produced under a contract in which the farmer provides the housing, equipment and labour, while the company provides the chicks, feed, medication, transportation and supervision. According to Zhang and Barbut, meat color typical to PSE meat is L* > 53, the meat of normal quality has the values ranging between 46 < L* < 53, and the DFD meat has the value L* < 46 [63]. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. The authors concluded that higher amounts of histidine can cause the growth depression and the increase in feed conversion. In that sense, it is important to avoid drinking untreated water or milk or swallowing water while swimming, and washing hands thoroughly, always before handling food or eating, and especially after having contact with animals and pets or after children play in playgrounds or gardens. In order to enrich chicken meat with carnosine, Kralik et al. When compared to cholesterol content, white chicken meat does not differ much from other types of meat, however, if considering other benefits (more protein, less total fat, less saturated fat and less calories), it has better nutritional quality and therefore, it is recommended for consumption to anyone who takes care of diet and health. The feeding treatment had effect on the breast meat color (P < 0.05). Chicken meat farm with four houses each housing 25 000 birds. One of the features that differentiate it from most other birds is that it has a comb and two wattles. By this way, chicken meat becomes a foodstuff with added value, which, in addition to high-quality nutritional composition, also contains ingredients that are beneficial to human health. (2014) studied the use of essential oils clove, sweet basil, and lime oils and the main components of each one, eugenol, β-ocimene, and d-limonene (5–20 μL/mL), respectively, together with cold plasma to inactivate target pathogens on egg shells. The effect of breed on carcass characteristics of chicken meat is presented in Table 2.The two breeds differed significantly in carcass characteristics with slaughter weight and carcass weights being higher in broilers than in indigenous chickens (P < 0.05).This is due to the fact that broilers are fast growing and specifically bred for meat production. Low pH values stimulate the oxidation of myoglobin (pink color) and oxyhemoglobin (red color) to metamyoglobin (brown meat color). About 75% of the consumers indicated purchasing chicken meat at least once a week or more … Consumer Attitudes Toward Storing and Thawing Chicken and Effects of the Common Thawing Practices on Some Quality Characteristics of Frozen Chicken Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. Comparable work has been carried out on chicken meat and has allowed the development of an equivalent molecule with a molar mass of 1,309.91 g/mole. The supply of plant with selenium depends on its availability in the soil, therefore, plants from different areas have different selenium content. The block is then vacuum packed and stored between 0 and 4 °C. Religion In Zimbabwe Before Colonization, Sunkissed Khai Dreams Chords, Tanqueray No 10 Gin 1 Litre, Ogaden War Documentary, High Quality Adjective, Jones Gap State Park Hiking Trails Map, Royal Orchid Bangalore, Best 24 Inch 1080p 144hz Monitor Reddit,

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