The mobilised natives turned on the British colonists, massacring about 4000 and expelling about 8,000 more.  Most modern towns in the province can date their origins back to this period. The treaty gave the new Irish Free State dominion status within the British Empire, but it also permitted the six counties of Northern Ireland to … Before the plantation, Ulster had been the most Gaelic province of Ireland, as it was the least anglicized and the most independent of English control. , After 1630, Scottish migration to Ireland waned for a decade. Baronies are now obsolete as administrative units, partially derived from the territory of an Irish chieftain. The London guilds planning to fund the Plantation of Ulster switched and backed the London Virginia Company instead. One of these provinces, Ulster, has nine counties, six of which are occupied by a foreign country. , On 23 October 1641, the Ulster Catholics staged a rebellion.  There was continuing English migration throughout this period, particularly the 1650s and 1680s, notably amongst these settlers were the Quakers from the North of England, who contributed greatly to the cultivation of flax and linen. Significant differences in political views between … In addition, long-standing contact and settlement between Ulster and the west of Scotland meant that Scottish participation was a practical necessity. Log in. Northern Ireland is sometimes referred to as Ulster, although it includes only six of the nine counties which made up that historic Irish province. By the time the process of turning local Irish kingdoms into baronies occurred throughout the whole of Ulster by the early 17th century as part of the Plantation of Ulster, it was already being used for taxation and administrative purposes.  As part of the conquest, plantations (colonial settlements) were established in Queen's County and King's County (Laois and Offaly) in the 1550s, and in Munster in the 1580s, although these were not very successful. Many of the Gaelic Irish practiced "creaghting" or "booleying", a kind of transhumance whereby some of them moved with their cattle to upland pastures during the summer months and lived in temporary dwellings during that time. "Gaelic Catholicism and the Plantation of Ulster", in, Brian MacCuarta,Age of Atrocity p155, Canny p177, Micheal O Siochru, God's Executioner, Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland, pp99, 128, 144, Karen Cullen, Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s, p176-179. The United Irishmen, Their Lives and Times Vol 1, J.Madden & Co (London 1845), Pg. Their descendants prospered, and their refusal to join the rest of Ireland in accepting Home Rule led to the establishment of the state of Northern Ireland in 1921, consisting of the six Ulster counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Londonderry, Tyrone, and Fermanagh (replaced in the early 1970s by 26 local districts). The other regional language is Ulster Scots, a variation of English which is spoken in Northern Ireland and is similar to Scots spoken in Scotland. The settlers were also required to maintain arms and attend an annual military 'muster'..  The Bruce invasion (1315–18) saw the devastation of the Earldom of Ulster and its overlordship over the neighbouring Gaelic districts. Antrim, Blathewyc, Cragferus, Coulrath, del Art, Dun, Ladcathel, and Twescard, the seven counties that formed the Earldom of Ulsterin … [page needed] Nevertheless, conversion was rare, despite the fact that, after 1621, Gaelic Irish natives could be officially classed as British if they converted to Protestantism. A.T.Q. The six counties date from the Kingdom of Ireland; five were created between 1570 and 1591 in the Tudor conquest of Ireland, while county Londonderry dates from 1613 and the Plantation of Ulster. Whereas in the 1660s, they made up some 20% of Ulster's population (though 60% of its British population) by 1720 they were an absolute majority in Ulster, with up to 50,000 having arrived during the period 1690-1710. , What was more, the new landowners were explicitly banned from taking Irish tenants and had to import workers from England and Scotland. King James issued a proclamation declaring their action to be treason, paving the way for the forfeiture of their lands and titles. In total, during the half century between 1650 and 1700, 100,000 British settlers migrated to Ulster, just over half of which were English. 2. The two-tier county/district system was replaced with a single-tier of "districts", numbering 26 in 1973 and rationalised into 11 in 2015. Most of the settlers (or planters) came from southern Scotland and northern England, and had a different culture to the native Irish. However another 4,000 Scottish adult males had settled in unplanted Antrim and Down, giving a total settler population of about 19,000. , By 1622, a survey found there were 6,402 British adult males on Plantation lands, of whom 3,100 were English and 3,700 Scottish – indicating a total adult planter population of around 12,000. Most of his supporters' families had been dispossessed and were likely motivated by the desire to recover their ancestral lands. Since these former officers did not have enough private capital to fund the colonisation, their involvement was subsidised by the twelve great guilds. In 1609, Chichester had 1,300 former Gaelic soldiers deported from Ulster to serve in the Swedish Army. , The plan for the plantation was determined by two factors.  The other two local government areas were the urban county boroughs of Derry[n 1] (geographically part of the County of Londonderry) and Belfast (geographically split between the counties of Antrim and Down).  John Davies, the Attorney-General for Ireland, used the law as a tool of conquest and colonization. Join now. This often led outsiders to mistakenly believe that the Gaelic Irish were nomadic. , The Plantation of Ulster was presented to James VI & I as a joint "British", or English and Scottish, venture to 'pacify' and 'civilise' Ulster, with at least half the settlers to be Scottish. , In addition to fighting the Ulster Irish, the British settlers fought each other in 1648–49 over the issues of the English Civil War. In this way, it was hoped that a defensible new community composed entirely of loyal British subjects would be created.. But Northern Ireland's native people were Catholic. Livery companies from the City of London were coerced into investing in the project, as were City of London guilds which were granted land on the west bank of the River Foyle, to build their own city on the site of Derry (renamed Londonderry after them) as well as lands in County Coleraine. This was a failure and sparked conflict with the Irish, in which the English massacred the O'Neills of Clannaboy and massacred the MacDonnells of Antrim.  In 1607 Sir Randall MacDonnell settled 300 Presbyterian Scots families on his land in Antrim. The six counties were also used as postal counties by the Royal Mail for sorting purposes until their abolition in 1996. The official plantation comprised an estimated half a million acres (2,000 km²) of arable land in counties Armagh, Cavan, Fermanagh, Tyrone, Tyrconnell and Londonderry. The County of the town of Carrickfergus remained separate from County Antrim until the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, which also promoted the boroughs of Belfast and Derry to county boroughs separate from the adjoining administrative counties. The 1898–1973 administrative counties were subdivided into county districts. The plantation was also meant to sever Gaelic Ulster's links with the Gaelic Highlands of Scotland. Outside government, the counties are used for cultural purposes, for example in the Gaelic Athletic Association.  English judges had also declared that titles to land held under gavelkind, the native Irish custom of inheriting land, had no standing under English law. These are contiguous with the six administrative counties and two county boroughs, established by the 1898 Local Government Act. That same year, English army officer Toby Caulfield wrote that "there is not a more discontented people in Christendom" than the Ulster Irish. The plan was that moving Borderers (see Border Reivers) to Ireland (particularly to County Fermanagh) would both solve the Border problem and tie down Ulster. Former counties which formed part of the six modern counties of Northern Ireland: Former principal local government divisions of Northern Ireland, The county and city/county borough officially named, Antrim and Down areas are calculated by combining the administrative county areas. This is how the nine historical counties were 'distributed': Republic of Ireland: Cavan, Donegal, Monaghan.  Secondly, the majority of the Gaelic Irish remained in their native areas, but were now only allowed worse land than before the plantation. Ireland is divided into geographic regions called counties. The English and Scottish parliaments then threatened to attack this army.  As a result, military garrisons were established across Ulster and many of the Plantation towns, notably Derry, were fortified.  The province was almost wholly Gaelic, Catholic and rural, and had been the region most resistant to English control. , The settlers also left a legacy in terms of language. Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom, lying in the northeastern quadrant of the island of Ireland, on the western continental periphery often characterized as Atlantic Europe. Northern Ireland consists of six historic counties: County Antrim, County Armagh, County Down, County Fermanagh, County Londonderry, County Tyrone.  The Scottish settlers were mostly Presbyterian Lowlanders and the English mostly members of the Church of England. The final major recipient of lands was the Protestant Church of Ireland, which was granted all the churches and lands previously owned by the Roman Catholic Church. Richard English has written that, "not all of those of British background in Ireland owe their Irish residence to the Plantations... yet the Plantation did produce a large British/English interest in Ireland, a significant body of Irish Protestants who were tied through religion and politics to English power. Stewart states that "The fear which it inspired survives in the Protestant subconscious as the memory of the Penal Laws or the Famine persists in the Catholic. O Siochru, Micheal, God's Executioner, Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland, Faber & Faber, London 2008. , Therefore, it is also argued that the Plantation itself was less important in the distinctiveness of the North East of Ireland than natural population flow between Ulster and Scotland. Answered What happened to the six counties of Northern Ireland when the Republic of Ireland was formed? The original proposals were smaller, involving planting settlers around key military posts and on church land, and would have included large land grants to native Irish lords who sided with the English during the war, such as Niall Garve O'Donnell. Lenihan, Padraig, Consolidating Conquest, Ireland 1603–1727, Pearson, Essex 2008. An estimated 150,000 left northern Ireland. In the 1630s, Presbyterians in Scotland staged a rebellion against Charles I for trying to impose Anglicanism. Cullen, Karen, Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s. The legacy of the Plantation remains disputed. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom. Ask your question. Although some 'loyal' natives were granted land, the native Irish reaction to the plantation was generally hostile, and native writers bewailed what they saw as the decline of Gaelic society and the influx of foreigners.. Most of the land colonised was forfeited from the native Gaelic chiefs, several of whom had fled Ireland for mainland Europe in 1607 following the Nine Years' War against English rule.  The colonists (or "British tenants") were required to be English-speaking, Protestant, and loyal to the king. 3. The conflict in Northern Ireland was generally referred to in Ireland during its course as ‘The Troubles’ – a euphemistic folk name that had also been applied to earlier bouts of political violence. Firstly, some 300 native landowners who had taken the English side in the Nine Years' War were rewarded with land grants. Marianne Elliott believes that "1641 destroyed the Ulster Plantation as a mixed settlement". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Lennon, Colm, Sixteenth Century Ireland, the Incomplete Conquest, Gill & MacMillan, Dublin 1994.  Of those Catholics who did convert to Protestantism, many made their choice for social and political reasons. The strong Ulster Scots accent originated through the speech of lowland Scots settlers evolving and being influenced by both Hiberno-English and Irish Gaelic. Carrickfergus was formerly a county of itself, it extended further than the modern borough of Carrickfergus. A. T. Q. Stewart concluded, "The distinctive Ulster-Scottish culture, isolated from the mainstream of Catholic and Gaelic culture, would appear to have been created not by the specific and artificial plantation of the early seventeenth century, but by the continuous natural influx of Scottish settlers both before and after that episode...", The Plantation of Ulster is also widely seen as the origin of mutually antagonistic Catholic/Irish and Protestant/British identities in Ulster. Northern Ireland was retained as part of the UK, and the rest of Ireland, became an independent state, and was known as the Irish Free State in 1922, and after 1949, the Republic of Ireland. After the Treaty of Mellifont, the northern chieftains attempted to consolidate their positions, and the English administration attempted to undermine them. ", adding "We have in their stead an arrogant, impure crowd, of foreigners' blood". STRAIGHTGETEM 05/19/2017 Geography High School +5 pts. Northern Ireland is one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom (together with England, Scotland and Wales). Six counties were involved in the official plantation – Donegal, Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan and Armagh.  Davies used this as a means to confiscate land, when other means failed. It has 32 counties and four provinces. Some of the undertakers and settlers however were Catholic and it has been suggested that a significant number of the Scots could speak Gaelic. Nearly everyone in Northern Ireland speaks English. Former counties which formed part of the six modern counties of Northern Ireland: 1. This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 21:16. A colonization of Ulster had been proposed since the end of the Nine Years' War. Kennedy, Liam, Ulster since 1600: Politics, Economy and Society, Oxford University Press, 2013. Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom, (although it is also described by official sources as a province or a region), situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland.It was created as a separate legal entity on 3 May 1921, under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. ", However, going on surnames, others have concluded that Protestant and Catholic are poor guides to whether people's ancestors were settlers or natives of Ulster in the 17th century. 1. ", In the summer of 1642, the Scottish Parliament sent some 10,000 soldiers to quell the Irish rebellion. In the 1570s, Elizabeth I authorized a privately funded plantation of eastern Ulster, led by Thomas Smith and Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex. The English administration in Ireland in the years following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland created counties as the major subdivisions of an Irish province. Many colonists who survived rushed to the seaports and went back to Great Britain.  The settler population grew rapidly, as just under half of the planters were women. Northern Ireland is divided into six counties, namely: Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry[n 1] and Tyrone. In an entry for the year 1608, the Annals of the Four Masters states that the land was "taken from the Irish" and given "to foreign tribes", and that Irish chiefs were "banished into other countries where most of them died". Northern Ireland sends its own MPs to the national parliament (even though the IRA members choose not to take up their seats) so there is no question of England "controlling" Northern Ireland. There was no such place as Northern Ireland up to then. Counties in Ireland … The six predominantly Protestant counties of Ulster would become the 'north', and the remaining 26 predominantly Catholic counties would become the 'south'. County Coleraine formed from the territory of the O'Cahans in 1584 by Queen Elizabeth I, formed the basis of modern County Londonderry. Northern Ireland, is of fairly recent origin, coming out of the partition of the island of Irelandin 1921. , The massacres made a lasting impression on psyche of the Ulster Protestant population. The Plantation of Ulster was the biggest of the Plantations of Ireland. The original partition based on the current six counties of Northern was drawn up under Lloyd George's Government of Ireland Act 1920 selected the boundaries of Northern Ireland as "the maximum area within which Unionists could be expected to have a safe majority".  Throughout the 16th century, Ulster was viewed by the English as being "underpopulated" and undeveloped. Northern Ireland is divided into six former local government divisions called counties, namely: Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone.  However, in the 1640s, the Ulster Plantation was thrown into turmoil by civil wars that raged in Ireland, England and Scotland. In addition to, and sometimes instead of, its official name, several other names are used for the region. County Town:Antrim First Created: Early 14thCentury Population:618,108 County Antrim covers an area of 3,046 km. After the 1567 death and 1570 attainder of Shane O'Neill, much of Clandeboy was added to the surviving English enclaves to form the new counties of Antrim and Down, preparing for an abortive private English plantation. The county of Antrim is around 1,176 square miles (3,046 square kilometers) in size and home to a population of about 618,000.  They saw the plantation as a means of controlling, anglicising and "civilising" Ulster. The British forces fought an inconclusive war with the Ulster Irish led by Owen Roe O'Neill. , Among those involved in planning and overseeing the plantation were King James, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, Arthur Chichester, and the Attorney-General for Ireland, John Davies. Richard English, Irish Freedom, A history of Irish Nationalism p. 59. 211,826 = 210,782 county plus 1,044 county borough. In regards to Northern Ireland the cities of Belfast and Londonderry became county boroughs. They were granted around 3000 acres (12 km²) each, on condition that they settle a minimum of 48 adult males (including at least 20 families), who had to be English-speaking and Protestant. Six largely rural administrative counties based on these were among the eight primary local government areas of Northern Ireland from its 1921 creation until 1973. 1584 – General boundaries of the counties of Ulster created by the Lord Deputy of Ireland Sir John Perrott. They settled first mostly in Pennsylvania and western Virginia, from where they moved southwest into the backcountry of upland territories in the South, the Ozarks and the Appalachian Mountains.. , Six counties were involved in the official plantation – Donegal, Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan and Armagh. Scots-Irish from Ulster and Scotland, and British from the borders region comprised the most numerous group of immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland to the colonies in the years before the American Revolution.  Each county would have an associated county town, with county courts of quarter sessions and assizes. The remaining Irish landowners were to be granted one quarter of the land in Ulster. , From 1609 onwards, British Protestant immigrants arrived in Ulster through direct importation by Undertakers to their estates and also by a spread to unpopulated areas, through ports such as Derry and Carrickfergus. They usually lived close to and even in the same townlands as the settlers and the land they had farmed previously. Before the Flight of the Earls, the English administration had sought to minimize the personal estates of the chieftains, but now they treated the chieftains as sole owners of their whole territories, so that all the land could be confiscated. Six largely rural administrative counties based on these were among the eight primary local government areas of Northern Ireland from its 1921 creation until 1973. The areas corresponding to the six counties and two county boroughs remain in use for some administrative purposes, and the six historic counties retain a popular identity. There are six counties which make up Northern Ireland.They are County Antrim, County Armagh, County Down, County Fermanagh, County Londonderry and County Tyrone. He also divided Connacht into six counties: Galway, Sligo, Mayo, Roscommon, Leitrim, and Clare (but Clare was subsequently annexed to Munster, to which it had anciently belonged). Sir, - Ireland is an island surrounded by water. , Despite the fact that Scottish Presbyterians strongly supported the Williamites in the Williamite war in Ireland in the 1690s, they were excluded from power in the postwar settlement by the Anglican Protestant Ascendancy. , Michael Perceval-Maxwell estimates that by 1600 (before the worst atrocities of the Nine Years' War) Ulster's total adult population was only 25,000 to 40,000 people. There is more cross breeding in Ulster's history than people imagined. In the early years following partition, the 26 counties were referred to as the Irish Free State.  The region was almost wholly rural and had few towns or villages. With the murder of the last de Burgh earl in 1333, the resulting Gaelic recovery expanded Clandeboy and eroded the earldom's territory until by the 15th century only the areas of Carrickfergus and coastal enclaves in Down remained.. One problem was language difference. Moreover, the planters were barred from selling their lands to any Irishman and were required to build defences against any possible rebellion or invasion. Home of Bushmills Whiskey which is made in the town of Bushmills 2. This argument therefore sees the Plantation as one of the long-term causes of the Partition of Ireland in 1921, as the north-east remained as part of the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland. During the 18th century, rising Scots resentment over religious, political and economic issues fueled their emigration to the American colonies, beginning in 1717 and continuing up to the 1770s. In the midst of this, Gaelic Irish landowners in Ulster, led by Felim O'Neill and Rory O'More, planned a rebellion to take over the administration in Ireland. The brief rebellion was ended by Sir Richard Wingfield at the Battle of Kilmacrennan. Tom Hartley, Book Review: Padraig O Snodaigh, Text of "Discourse on the mere Irish of Ireland", anon Ms, c.1608, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, List of World Heritage Sites in the Republic of Ireland, List of national parks of the Republic of Ireland, Public holidays in the Republic of Ireland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plantation_of_Ulster&oldid=998320111, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The total number of counties in the island of Ireland is 32, with Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland often respectively called "the Six Counties" and "the Twenty-Six Counties", especially by Irish nationalists opposed to the partition of Ireland. Another wave of Scottish immigration to Ulster took place in the 1690s, when tens of thousands of Scots fled a famine (1696–1698) in the border region of Scotland. Thus six counties of the north of Ireland – Antrim, Armagh, Tyrone, Down, Fermanagh, Derry become an autonomous entity of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom. Interesting facts: 1. , Baronies were used for many records from the 17th to 19th centuries such as: the Civil Survey; Petty's Down Survey; the Books of Survey and Distribution; the 19th century valuation books and census returns. In Northern Ireland: Home Rule …George’s government then negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, with Sinn Féin. From 1606 there was substantial lowland Scots settlement on disinhabited land in north Down, led by Hugh Montgomery and James Hamilton. 1613 – Ulster after the creation of County Londonderry, from the merger of County Coleraine, the North West Liberties of Londonderry (1), Loughinsholin (2), and North East Liberties of Coleraine (3). They are County Antrim, County Armagh, County Down, County Fermanagh, County Londonderry and County Tyrone. Moreover, the unofficial settlements in Antrim and Down were thriving. It has two cities, Belfast and Lisburn, five large towns, seven small towns, five intermediate settlements, 11 villages and 25 hamlets.  It asks "Where have the Gaels gone? In this way Northern Ireland was created. The settlement was to be completed within three years. What are now the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were formed in 1922. In the two officially unplanted counties of Antrim and Down, substantial Presbyterian Scots settlement had been underway since 1606. Plantation towns generally have a single broad main street ending in a square – often known as a "diamond", for example The Diamond, Donegal. This was of particular concern to James VI of Scotland when he became King of England, since he knew Scottish instability could jeopardise his chances of ruling both kingdoms effectively. In 1584, Lord Deputy of Ireland Sir John Perrott created six counties in Ulster, based largely on the boundaries of existing lordships; four of the six are now Northern Ireland: Armagh, Coleraine, Fermanagh, and Tyrone.  Irish Gaelic writers bewailed the plantation. The Plantation of Ulster (Irish: Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulster – a province of Ireland – by people from Great Britain during the reign of King James I. Later 15th century – Boundaries of counties and lordships (black border) and minor lordships (grey border) in Ulster.  Some planters settled on uninhabited and unexploited land, often building up their farms and homes on overgrown terrain that has been variously described as "wilderness" and "virgin" ground. This set up a semiautonomous parliament in Belfast and a Crown-appointed governor advised by a cabinet of the prime minister and 8 ministers, as well as a 12-member representation in the House of Commons in London. 1 ] Each county is divided into lieutenancy areas ( see map on right ) British Protestant settlers to! ) to the rebels were considered generous at the Battle of Kilmacrennan Ireland is not of! The forfeiture of their lands and titles not like the original land to! Border ) in Ulster. [ 26 ] county town: Antrim, Down! Whereas the native Irish to the six counties of Northern Ireland is not part of rebellion! System was replaced with a single-tier of `` districts '', numbering 26 in 1973 and rationalised into 11 2015. 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