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culloden battlefield map

culloden battlefield map

On the Jacobite right, the Atholl Brigade, Lochiel's and the Appin Regiment left their start positions and charged towards Barrell's and Munro's regiments. I had wanted to come here after reading about the events that took place here in 1746, and I'm glad that I did. Instead of a regimental standard, the regiment is said to have marched behind a bunch of heather attached to a pike. Grant of Glenmoriston's Battalion was a very small unit of ~ 80–100 men, from Glenmoriston and Glen Urquhart. Farquharson of Monaltrie's Battalion is sometimes referred to as the "Mar" battalion of Lord. [14] Cumberland's army advanced along the coast and entered Aberdeen on 27 February; both sides halted operations until the weather improved. The Battle of Culloden Map provided by Wikipedia.org The battle was a quick and bloody ordeal (and somewhat controversial) and proved to be a pivotal moment that would determine the future of Britain and in many ways the rest of Europe and even the United States. 1 Historic battlesites, … After spending a few days with his close associates, he sailed for the island of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides. Culloden Battlefield and Visitor Centre. The real battlefield was used for this scene. No physical challenge. Reid gives "500'" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however gives "Some 300 strong at Falkirk, about 350 strong at Culloden" in Reid (2006), p. 22., and 700 in "Culloden" Edited by Tony Pollard (2009) p39. It was the final battle of the 1745 Jacobite Rising and the last Battle to be held on British soil. [52], The duration implies that the government artillery are unlikely to have fired more than thirty rounds at extreme range: statistical analysis concludes that this would have caused only 20-30 Jacobite casualties at this stage, rather than the hundreds suggested by some accounts. Added to the official list of those apprehended were 172 of the Earl of Cromartie's men, captured after a brief engagement the day before near Littleferry. Battle plan of Culloden, 1753. By 14 April, the Jacobites had evacuated Nairn, and Cumberland's army camped at Balblair just west of the town. First Line commanded by Lord General Murray, Lord John Drummond, and the Duke of Perth. Went to the NTS Culloden site today and had a great visit, sympathetic interpretation with a well balanced record of events. Many of the infantry were experienced veterans of Continental service, but on the outbreak of the Jacobite rising, extra incentives were given to recruits to fill the ranks of depleted units. At the end of season 2 we heard the sounds of the Battle of Culloden pounding in the background as Jamie said good bye to Claire. The last ever pitched battle to be fought on British soil took place on 16th April 1746 on Drummossie Moor, overlooking Inverness. One account of that night even records that Perth's men made contact with government troops before realising the rest of the Jacobite force had turned home. [92] The real battlefield was used for this scene. [66], Following the battle, the Jacobites' Lowland regiments headed south, towards Corrybrough and made their way to Ruthven Barracks, while their Highland units made their way north, towards Inverness and on through to Fort Augustus. A few historians, such as Jeremy Black and Christopher Duffy, have suggested that if Perth had carried on the night attack might have remained viable, though most have disagreed, as perhaps only 1200 of the Jacobite force accompanied him.[42][43][44]. Some more modern and colorful books are "Culloden 1746" by Peter Harringon (Osprey Military) or "Culloden and the '45" by Jeremy Black (St. Martin's Press) show many of the maps and layout of the battle.This page will cover the MacInnes connection that is still alive today. The monument is recorded by the RCAHMS as Culloden Moor, The Graves of the Clans NH74NW 17.03, Culloden Moor, Well of the Dead NH74NW 20 and Culloden Moor, Battlefield NH74NW 17.00. While the Jacobite front rank now substantially outnumbered that of Cumberland, their reserve was further depleted, increasing their reliance on the first line attack. Discover (and save!) The result was that they were a clear target for government dragoons: Major-general Humphrey Bland led the pursuit of the fleeing Highlanders, giving "Quarter to None but about Fifty French Officers and Soldiers".[61]. Members of the Episcopal clergy were required to give oaths of allegiance to the reigning Hanoverian dynasty. In the encounter Campbell of Ballimore was killed along with five of his men. Others, including Kilmarnock, were captured. [1][2] Cumberland's official list of prisoners taken includes 154 Jacobites and 222 "French" prisoners (men from the 'foreign units' in the French service). In the days and weeks that followed, versions of the alleged orders were published in the Newcastle Journal and the Gentleman's Journal. Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart, died in 1714, with no living children. Discover (and save!) The Jacobite right was particularly hard hit by a volley from the government regiments at nearly point blank range, but many of its men still reached the government lines and, for the first time, a battle was decided by a direct clash between charging Highlanders and formed infantry equipped with muskets and socket bayonets. The plans were rejected after ministers said the move would "suburbanise" the Jacobite site due to the “national historic significance” of the battlefield. The group dispersed, and the following week the Government launched punitive expeditions into the Highlands which continued throughout the summer.[66][68]. This party of MacGregors were attached to Farquharson of Monaltrie's battalion of Lord Lewis Gordon's Regiment. [21][note 1] A typical 'clan' regiment was officered by the heavily-armed tacksmen, with their subtenants acting as common soldiers. At this point, continuing Jacobite resistance remained potentially viable in terms of manpower: at least a third of the army had either missed or slept through Culloden, which along with survivors from the battle gave a potential force of 5-6000 men. The instructions were to use only swords, dirks and bayonets, to overturn tents, and subsequently to locate "a swelling or bulge in the fallen tent, there to strike and push vigorously". On 23 July 1745 James's son Charles Edward Stuart landed on Eriskay in the Western Islands in an attempt to reclaim the throne of Great Britain for his father, accompanied only by the "Seven Men of Moidart". Jacobite casualties are estimated at 1,500–2,000 killed or wounded, with many of these occurring in the pursuit after the battle. [80] Previous to this act, feudal lords (which included clan chiefs) had considerable judicial and military power over their followers – such as the oft quoted power of "pit and gallows". [70] The common Jacobite supporters fared better than the ranking individuals. Culloden Battlefield is situated southeast of Balloch, northwest of Strath Nairn. However, up until this point in the campaign, the government artillery had performed dismally. In theory, a standard single-battalion British infantry regiment was 815 strong, including officers, but were often smaller in practice and at Culloden, the regiments were not much larger than about 400 men. Of the total 3,471 prisoners recorded, nothing is known of the fate of 648. D. D: The Dragoons of the Dukes army formed on [the] Rear of the right Flank of   the Highlanders where they marched during the attack thro’ some Breaches made in the Stone Walls by the Campbells. In some cases it may be possible to identify whether the Jacobites or government soldiers fired certain rounds, because the Jacobite forces are known to have used a large quantity of French muskets which fired a slightly smaller calibre shot than that of the British Army's Brown Bess. Yu can be of no great succor, so before a general deroute wch will soon be, Seize upon the Prince & take him off ...". From this point on the fleeing Jacobite forces were split into several groups: the Lowland regiments retired in order southwards, making their way to Ruthven Barracks, while the remains of the Jacobite right wing also retired to the south. The sergeants of the regiment suffered worse, with seven out of ten hanged. Cumberland later wrote: "They came running on in their wild manner, and upon the right where I had place myself, imagining the greatest push would be there, they came down there several times within a hundred yards of our men, firing their pistols and brandishing their swords, but the Royal Scots and Pulteneys hardly took their fire-locks from their shoulders, so that after those faint attempts they made off; and the little squadrons on our right were sent to pursue them".[58][59]. [38], Jacobite lieutenant-general Lord George Murray "did not like the ground", as it was relatively flat and open, suggesting an alternative, steeply sloping site near Daviot Castle. [note 2] Major-General Huske, who was in command of the government's second line, quickly organised the counter attack. Culloden Battlefield Historic Site Culloden was the site, in 1746, of the last armed conflict on the British mainland, after several centuries of recurring conflicts between Scotland and England. Culloden Battlefield is a short bus ride from Inverness (about 30 minutes). With specially written audio and supporting illustrations and video, the portable guide’s compelling content is … Discover the beauty hidden in the maps. Barrell's lost 17 and suffered 108 wounded, out of a total of 373 officers and men. Charles Edward Stuart chose not to re-group his forces and fled abroad. Today only one copy of the alleged order to "give no quarter" exists. B. This weapon had a range of 500 yards (460 m) and fired two kinds of shot: round iron and canister. There had been no sign of a French landing or any significant number of English recruits, while they risked being caught between two armies, each one twice their size: Cumberland's, advancing north from London, and Wade's moving south from Newcastle upon Tyne. B: The Highland army when the Battle began, C. C: The Highland Army as they made the attack. Entering England and returning was a considerable military achievement and morale was high; Jacobite strength increased to over 8,000 with the addition of a substantial north-eastern contingent under Lord Lewis Gordon, as well as Scottish and Irish regulars in French service. A: The Position of the English Army when the Battle began. The Irish Picquets under Stapleton bravely covered the Highlanders' retreat from the battlefield, preventing the fleeing Jacobites from suffering heavy casualties: this action cost half of the 100 casualties they suffered in the battle. Out of 27 officers of the English "Manchester Regiment": one died in prison; one was acquitted; one was pardoned; two were released for giving evidence; four escaped; two were banished; three were transported; and eleven were executed. Today, hundreds of people visit the battlefield each year to pay their respects to those who lost their lives on that day. Around 500 men from the Irish Brigade fought in the battle, around 100 of whom were thought to have been recruited from 6th (Guise's) Foot taken prisoner at Fort Augustus. [39] The issue had not been fully resolved by the time of the battle and in the event circumstances largely dictated the point at which the Jacobites formed line, some distance to the west of the site chosen by Sullivan.[40]. Commander-in-Chief North Britain: Lieutenant-General Henry Hawley, See the following reference for source of tables[110], See following reference for source of table[114], Final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745, Soldiers of the 8th, 20th, 34th, 36th and 48th Regiments, circa 1742. Similar orders must have been received by the Highland units at Fort Augustus, and by 18 April the majority of the Jacobite army was disbanded. Discover the beauty hidden in the maps. Behind them the 'Low Country' regiments were drawn up in column, in accordance with French practice. Culloden Battlefield Mass Graves Location Culloden , Highland , Scotland Add to Map Apr 19, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Celtic Dancer *. [66] At least two of those present at Ruthven, James Johnstone and John Daniel, recorded that the Highland troops remained in good spirits despite the defeat and eager to resume the campaign. C. C: only some breakings in the Line occasion’d by the marshy Ground. Within a few hundred yards, however, the centre regiments, Lady Mackintosh's and Lovat's, had begun to swerve rightwards, either trying to avoid canister fire or in order to follow the firmer ground along the road running diagonally across Drummossie Moor. The unit was commanded by Maj Patrick Grant of Glenmoriston and Alexander Grant, younger of Shewglie. By a return of the Officers and Men, the day of Battle, the 15 Battalions were just 6411: which with the Dragoons, Kingston’s Horse, Artillery, Lord Louden’s, and the Argyleshire Highlanders, made the Duke’s army always reckoned, about 10000 Men. In any event, Cumberland's order was not carried out for two days, after which contemporary accounts report then that for the next two days the moor was searched and all those wounded were put to death. Sullivan went to inform Charles Edward Stuart of the change of plan, but missed him in the dark. We provide wheelchairs, free of charge. your own Pins on Pinterest For example, pistol balls and pieces of shattered muskets have been uncovered here which indicate close quarters fighting, as pistols were only used at close range and the musket pieces appear to have been smashed by pistol/musket balls or heavy broadswords. At least seven privates were executed, some no doubt died in prison, and most of the rest were transported to the colonies. Reid gives "500" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; he states that Inverallochie's battalion that took part in the battle numbered "about 300". Shewing the Incampment of the ENGLISH ARMY at NAIRN, and the March of the Highlanders in Order to Attack Them by Night. This page shows the location of Culloden Moor, Inverness IV2 5EU, UK on a detailed road map. Battle plan of Culloden, 1753. Almost all of the 87 of the men from this unit who surrendered on 4 May were transported. According to Tripadvisor travellers, these are the best ways to experience Culloden Battlefield: Highlander Loch Ness and Culloden Battlefield 8 Seater Tour from Inverness (From US$82.92) Loch Ness, Whisky and Outlander Day Tour from Inverness (From US$66.34) Inverness Outlander Tour … [61] Contrary to government depictions of Charles as a coward, he yelled "they won't take me alive!" And though it’s a designated war grave, no regiment in the British Army has it listed on its battle honours. [88][89] A stone lies on the eastern side of the battlefield that is supposed to mark the spot where Cumberland directed the battle. Map of the 2015 Culloden Muir Protection Area indicating that the battle took place over a much wider … Osprey Publishing. The Battle of Culloden is one of the most historically important civil wars of Great Britain. Finally, on 19 September, Charles reached Borrodale on Loch nan Uamh in Arisaig, where his party boarded two small French ships, which ferried them to France. * Culloden Battlefield Guide For a really unique experience, try the new Culloden battlefield guide and immerse yourself in the story of a momentous day as you visit the site of … This page shows the location of Culloden Moor, Inverness IV2 5EU, UK on a detailed satellite map. English: Map of the Battle of Culloden. Independent visitor reviews of accessibility at Culloden can be found on the Euan’s Guide website. In striking contrast to the Jacobite losses, the government losses were reported as 50 dead and 259 wounded. [79] The forfeited estates were managed by factors. MacGregors serving in MacDonald of Keppoch's Regiment were commanded by John MacGregor of Glengyle. Many were not combat experienced, having spent the preceding years on anti-smuggling duties. [13], On 1 February, the siege of Stirling was abandoned and the Jacobites retreated to Inverness. At the battle of Culloden, the Hanoverian army led by the Duke of Cumberland, son of King George II, defeated the much smaller army of Lord John Murray and Prince Charles Edward Stuart. [33], Several significant Jacobite units were still en route or engaged far to the north, but on learning of the government advance their main army of about 5,400 left its base at Inverness on 15 April and assembled in battle order 5 miles (8 km) to the east. Note: Clicking on any of the directions above, will automatically zoom in on that location within the map. [87] West of this site lies another stone, erected by Forbes, marking the place where the body of Alexander McGillivray of Dunmaglass was found after the battle. The smaller units on their right - Maclachlan's Regiment and Chisholm's and Monaltrie's battalions - advanced into an area swept by artillery fire, and suffered heavy losses before falling back. Poor Barrell's regiment were sorely pressed by those desperadoes and outflanked. They are also attempting to expand the land under its care to ensure the full battlefield is protected under the NTS. This map shows the skewing of the Jacobite front line as the right wing moved forward, but the left wing stayed anchored to the enclosure wall. The result was that the Royal Écossais and Kilmarnock's Footguards were forced out into the open moor and were engaged by three squadrons of Kerr's 11th Dragoons: the fleeing Jacobites must have put up a fight, for Kerr's 11th recorded at least 16 horses killed during the entirety of the battle. It was the last pitched battle fought on British soil. Get free map for your website. Independent visitor reviews of accessibility at Culloden can be found on the Euan’s Guide website. Culloden Battlefield saw the last battle on Scottish soil. [41] By then, many Jacobite soldiers had dispersed in search of food or returned to Inverness, while others were asleep in ditches and outbuildings; several hundred of their army may have missed the battle. Rome2rio makes travelling from Inverness to Culloden Moor, Culloden Battlefield easy. It was the final attempt of the Jacobite rising that resulted in a victory for the House of Hanover over the House of Stuart. your own Pins on Pinterest The other weapon used was the Coehorn mortar. At least two companies of MacGregors, commanded by James Mor Drummond, served in the Duke of Perth's Regiment. Visit and you’ll find out why. The National Trust of Scotland is currently attempting to restore Culloden Moor, as closely as possible, to the state it was in during the Battle of Culloden Moor. Website Visiting Culloden. Frank Watson Wood, (1862–1953). The following overview lists the admission prices and various discounts for a visit to Culloden Battlefield and Visitor Centre in Inverness. Another goal is to restore Leannach Cottage and allow visitors to once again tour the interior. The Battle of Culloden (/kəˈlɒdən/;[3] Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There is also a visitors centre, well worth the visit where you will experience a dramatisation in a … The Inventory boundary for the Battle of Culloden is defined on the accompanying map and includes the following areas: Culloden House and grounds. A Highland Jacobite officer wrote: "We were likewise forbid in the attack to make use of firearms, but only of sword, dirk and bayonet, to cutt the tent strings, and pull down the poles, and where observed a swelling or bulge in the falen tent, there to strick and push vigorously". Find all the transport options for your trip from Dingwall to Culloden Moor, Culloden Battlefield right here. [47] John Daniel, an Englishman serving with Charles's army, recorded that on seeing the government troops the Jacobites began to "huzza and bravado them", though without response: "on the contrary, they continued proceding, like a deep sullen river". Map of the Battle of Culloden 16th April 1746 in the Jacobite Rebellion: map by John Fawkes. Murray led them across country with the intention of avoiding government outposts: Murray's one time aide-de-camp, James Chevalier de Johnstone later wrote, "this march across country in a dark night which did not allow us to follow any track [was] accompanied with confusion and disorder". Horse commanded by Lieutenant General Hawley, and Major General Bland. The Jacobite artillery is generally regarded as playing little part in the battle, all but one of the cannon being 3-pounders.[27]. Find the best walking trails near you in … Choose from several map styles. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart fought loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland near Inverness. According to the account of Andrew Henderson, Lord John Drummond walked across the front of the Jacobite lines to try and tempt the government infantry into firing early, but they maintained their discipline. Culloden Woodland and Battlefield Trail is a 2.8 mile loop trail located near Inverness, Highland, Scotland that offers the chance to see wildlife and is good for all skill levels. [26] As the campaign progressed, supplies from France improved their equipment considerably and by the time of Culloden, many were equipped with 0.69 in (17.5 mm) calibre French and Spanish firelocks. On 8 May, nearby at Murlaggan, Lochiel, Lochgarry, Clanranald and Barisdale all agreed to rendezvous at Invermallie on 18 May, as did Lord Lovat and his son. Culloden Culloden is a village to the east of Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. The Jacobite left, by contrast, advanced much more slowly, hampered by boggy ground and by having several hundred yards further to cover. 26–27. Following up on the military success won by their forces, the British Government enacted laws further to integrate Scotland – specifically the Scottish Highlands – with the rest of Britain. [48] Once within 500 metres, Cumberland moved his artillery up through the ranks. One stand of their colours was taken; Collonel Riches hand cutt off in their defence ... We marched up to the enemy, and our left, outflanking them, wheeled in upon them; the whole then gave them 5 or 6 fires with vast execution, while their front had nothing left to oppose us, but their pistolls and broadswords; and fire from their center and rear, (as, by this time, they were 20 or 30 deep) was vastly more fatal to themselves, than us. The Jacobites, with limited French military support, attempted to consolidate their control of Scotland, where by early 1746 they were opposed by a substantial government army. [51] The government artillery responded shortly afterwards: while some later Jacobite memoirs suggest their troops were then subjected to artillery bombardment for 30 minutes or more while Charles delayed an advance, government accounts suggest a much shorter exchange before the Jacobites attacked. The Culloden Battlefield is a must-see site for any history buff hoping to untangle the story of the British Isles. Although he was better known as a Naval artist who mainly painted in water colours Frank Watson Wood painted The Highland Charge at the Battle of Culloden in oil. The result was the right wing was closer to the enemy than the left wing and that gaps appeared in the line as it stretched. Powered scooters can be borrowed to tour the battlefield. ", "Point of Contact: Archaeology at Culloden", "SUTHERLAND, William, Lord Strathnaver (1708-50)", "Augustin Heckel: The Battle of Culloden", "Handel - Judas Maccabaeus - Programme Notes", Hakka Muggies - Feed The Fairies (2010, CD) | Discogs, Cumberland's dispatch from the battle, published in the London Gazette, Culloden Moor and the Story of the Battle (1867 account), Controversy over the redevelopment of the NTS visitor centre at Culloden, Ghosts of Culloden including the Great Scree and Highlander Ghost, "A plan of the battle of Coullodin moore fought on the 16th of Aprile 1746", "A plan of the Battle of Culloden and the adjacent country, shewing the incampment of the English army at Nairn and the march of the Highlanders in order to attack them by night", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Culloden&oldid=996453511, Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Scottish Gaelic-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Second Line commanded by [Major General] Huske. [66], With visible proof that the French had not deserted them, a group of Jacobite leaders attempted to prolong the campaign. The two armies eventually met at Culloden, on terrain that gave Cumberland's larger, well-rested force the advantage. Oct 3, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by J'nell Ciesielski. Visitors can purchase entrance tickets to find themselves on the frontlines of one of the most important battles in British history and explore the popular site at their own pace. Culloden House – where the Charles Edward Stuart and his Officers stayed, and many of the Jacobites camped, prior to the battle. They faced north-east over common grazing land, with the Water of Nairn about 1 km to their right. Culloden Battlefield, Loch Ness, Urquhart Castle, Glen Ord Distillery and more! [84] A stone, known as "The English Stone", is situated west of the Old Leanach cottage and is said to mark the burial place of the government dead. Culloden Battlefield is the historic site of the last battle on British soil in 1746. The headquarters of the Jacobite army prior to the battle and the lodgings of Bonnie Prince Charlie. Map route starts from Loch Lomond, United Kingdom and end at Culloden Battlefield, Culloden Moor, Inverness IV2 5EU, UK. Rome2rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from any location in the world. Things to do near Culloden Battlefield on Tripadvisor: See reviews and 2,617 candid photos of things to do near Culloden Battlefield in Culloden Moor, United Kingdom. [28] The bulk of the infantry units had already seen action at Falkirk, but had been further drilled, rested and resupplied since then. It’s an easy walk, physically. Most of the rest of the army broke up, with men heading for home or attempting to escape abroad,[66] although the Appin Regiment amongst others was still in arms as late as July. The plan was that there they would be joined by what remained of Keppoch's men and Macpherson of Cluny's regiment, which had not taken part in the battle at Culloden. References: Brander M 1975, SCOTTISH AND BORDER BATTLES AND BALLADS, 215-217. [7], The Prince's Council, a committee formed of 15-20 senior leaders, met on 30 and 31 October to discuss plans to invade England. The confusion was worsened when the three largest regiments lost their commanding officers, who were all at the front of the advance: MacGillivray and MacBean of Lady Mackintosh's both went down; Inverallochie of Lovat's fell, and Lochiel had his ankles broken by canister within a few yards of the government lines. Terrified locals live in fear of Culloden Moor's "anniversary ghosts", spectral soldiers who appear from thin air to fight each other every year on 16 April, the day of the battle. The Battle of Culloden took place on Culloden Moor, (a short drive outside Inverness), on 16 April 1746. [8] For Charles, the main prize was England; he argued removing the Hanoverians would guarantee an independent Scotland and assured the Scots that the French were planning to land in Southern England, while thousands of English supporters would join once across the border. After a heated council with other officers, Murray concluded that there was not enough time to mount a surprise attack and that the offensive should be aborted. A standard cavalryman had a Land Service pistol and a carbine, but the main weapon used by the British cavalry was a sword with a 35-inch blade. Discover (and save!) Cumberland decided to wait out the winter, and moved his troops northwards to Aberdeen. I did actually engage the others being intimidated [frightened] on seeing those who made such a desperate attack, obliged to give way. On the day of the planned rendezvous, Clanranald never appeared and Lochgarry and Barisdale only showed up with about 300 combined, most of whom immediately dispersed in search of food: Lochiel, who commanded possibly the strongest Jacobite regiment at Culloden, was only able to muster 300 men. Dejean's lost 14 and had 68 wounded, with this unit's left wing taking a disproportionately higher number of casualties. Interesting finds have been made in the areas where the fiercest fighting occurred on the government left wing, particularly where Barrell's and Dejean's regiments stood. The trail is primarily used for hiking, walking, and nature trips. The battle lasted only an hour, with the Jacobites suffering a bloody defeat; between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded,[1][2] while about 300 government soldiers were killed or wounded. Of the 16 British infantry battalions, 11 were English, 4 were Scottish (3 Lowland + 1 Highland), and 1 Irish battalion. 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Charles would bring up the second Line men will take notice that the public orders of the most part with.

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On the Jacobite right, the Atholl Brigade, Lochiel's and the Appin Regiment left their start positions and charged towards Barrell's and Munro's regiments. I had wanted to come here after reading about the events that took place here in 1746, and I'm glad that I did. Instead of a regimental standard, the regiment is said to have marched behind a bunch of heather attached to a pike. Grant of Glenmoriston's Battalion was a very small unit of ~ 80–100 men, from Glenmoriston and Glen Urquhart. Farquharson of Monaltrie's Battalion is sometimes referred to as the "Mar" battalion of Lord. [14] Cumberland's army advanced along the coast and entered Aberdeen on 27 February; both sides halted operations until the weather improved. The Battle of Culloden Map provided by Wikipedia.org The battle was a quick and bloody ordeal (and somewhat controversial) and proved to be a pivotal moment that would determine the future of Britain and in many ways the rest of Europe and even the United States. 1 Historic battlesites, … After spending a few days with his close associates, he sailed for the island of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides. Culloden Battlefield and Visitor Centre. The real battlefield was used for this scene. No physical challenge. Reid gives "500'" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; however gives "Some 300 strong at Falkirk, about 350 strong at Culloden" in Reid (2006), p. 22., and 700 in "Culloden" Edited by Tony Pollard (2009) p39. It was the final battle of the 1745 Jacobite Rising and the last Battle to be held on British soil. [52], The duration implies that the government artillery are unlikely to have fired more than thirty rounds at extreme range: statistical analysis concludes that this would have caused only 20-30 Jacobite casualties at this stage, rather than the hundreds suggested by some accounts. Added to the official list of those apprehended were 172 of the Earl of Cromartie's men, captured after a brief engagement the day before near Littleferry. Battle plan of Culloden, 1753. By 14 April, the Jacobites had evacuated Nairn, and Cumberland's army camped at Balblair just west of the town. First Line commanded by Lord General Murray, Lord John Drummond, and the Duke of Perth. Went to the NTS Culloden site today and had a great visit, sympathetic interpretation with a well balanced record of events. Many of the infantry were experienced veterans of Continental service, but on the outbreak of the Jacobite rising, extra incentives were given to recruits to fill the ranks of depleted units. At the end of season 2 we heard the sounds of the Battle of Culloden pounding in the background as Jamie said good bye to Claire. The last ever pitched battle to be fought on British soil took place on 16th April 1746 on Drummossie Moor, overlooking Inverness. One account of that night even records that Perth's men made contact with government troops before realising the rest of the Jacobite force had turned home. [92] The real battlefield was used for this scene. [66], Following the battle, the Jacobites' Lowland regiments headed south, towards Corrybrough and made their way to Ruthven Barracks, while their Highland units made their way north, towards Inverness and on through to Fort Augustus. A few historians, such as Jeremy Black and Christopher Duffy, have suggested that if Perth had carried on the night attack might have remained viable, though most have disagreed, as perhaps only 1200 of the Jacobite force accompanied him.[42][43][44]. Some more modern and colorful books are "Culloden 1746" by Peter Harringon (Osprey Military) or "Culloden and the '45" by Jeremy Black (St. Martin's Press) show many of the maps and layout of the battle.This page will cover the MacInnes connection that is still alive today. The monument is recorded by the RCAHMS as Culloden Moor, The Graves of the Clans NH74NW 17.03, Culloden Moor, Well of the Dead NH74NW 20 and Culloden Moor, Battlefield NH74NW 17.00. While the Jacobite front rank now substantially outnumbered that of Cumberland, their reserve was further depleted, increasing their reliance on the first line attack. Discover (and save!) The result was that they were a clear target for government dragoons: Major-general Humphrey Bland led the pursuit of the fleeing Highlanders, giving "Quarter to None but about Fifty French Officers and Soldiers".[61]. Members of the Episcopal clergy were required to give oaths of allegiance to the reigning Hanoverian dynasty. In the encounter Campbell of Ballimore was killed along with five of his men. Others, including Kilmarnock, were captured. [1][2] Cumberland's official list of prisoners taken includes 154 Jacobites and 222 "French" prisoners (men from the 'foreign units' in the French service). In the days and weeks that followed, versions of the alleged orders were published in the Newcastle Journal and the Gentleman's Journal. Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart, died in 1714, with no living children. Discover (and save!) The Jacobite right was particularly hard hit by a volley from the government regiments at nearly point blank range, but many of its men still reached the government lines and, for the first time, a battle was decided by a direct clash between charging Highlanders and formed infantry equipped with muskets and socket bayonets. The plans were rejected after ministers said the move would "suburbanise" the Jacobite site due to the “national historic significance” of the battlefield. The group dispersed, and the following week the Government launched punitive expeditions into the Highlands which continued throughout the summer.[66][68]. This party of MacGregors were attached to Farquharson of Monaltrie's battalion of Lord Lewis Gordon's Regiment. [21][note 1] A typical 'clan' regiment was officered by the heavily-armed tacksmen, with their subtenants acting as common soldiers. At this point, continuing Jacobite resistance remained potentially viable in terms of manpower: at least a third of the army had either missed or slept through Culloden, which along with survivors from the battle gave a potential force of 5-6000 men. The instructions were to use only swords, dirks and bayonets, to overturn tents, and subsequently to locate "a swelling or bulge in the fallen tent, there to strike and push vigorously". On 23 July 1745 James's son Charles Edward Stuart landed on Eriskay in the Western Islands in an attempt to reclaim the throne of Great Britain for his father, accompanied only by the "Seven Men of Moidart". Jacobite casualties are estimated at 1,500–2,000 killed or wounded, with many of these occurring in the pursuit after the battle. [80] Previous to this act, feudal lords (which included clan chiefs) had considerable judicial and military power over their followers – such as the oft quoted power of "pit and gallows". [70] The common Jacobite supporters fared better than the ranking individuals. Culloden Battlefield is situated southeast of Balloch, northwest of Strath Nairn. However, up until this point in the campaign, the government artillery had performed dismally. In theory, a standard single-battalion British infantry regiment was 815 strong, including officers, but were often smaller in practice and at Culloden, the regiments were not much larger than about 400 men. Of the total 3,471 prisoners recorded, nothing is known of the fate of 648. D. D: The Dragoons of the Dukes army formed on [the] Rear of the right Flank of   the Highlanders where they marched during the attack thro’ some Breaches made in the Stone Walls by the Campbells. In some cases it may be possible to identify whether the Jacobites or government soldiers fired certain rounds, because the Jacobite forces are known to have used a large quantity of French muskets which fired a slightly smaller calibre shot than that of the British Army's Brown Bess. Yu can be of no great succor, so before a general deroute wch will soon be, Seize upon the Prince & take him off ...". From this point on the fleeing Jacobite forces were split into several groups: the Lowland regiments retired in order southwards, making their way to Ruthven Barracks, while the remains of the Jacobite right wing also retired to the south. The sergeants of the regiment suffered worse, with seven out of ten hanged. Cumberland later wrote: "They came running on in their wild manner, and upon the right where I had place myself, imagining the greatest push would be there, they came down there several times within a hundred yards of our men, firing their pistols and brandishing their swords, but the Royal Scots and Pulteneys hardly took their fire-locks from their shoulders, so that after those faint attempts they made off; and the little squadrons on our right were sent to pursue them".[58][59]. [38], Jacobite lieutenant-general Lord George Murray "did not like the ground", as it was relatively flat and open, suggesting an alternative, steeply sloping site near Daviot Castle. [note 2] Major-General Huske, who was in command of the government's second line, quickly organised the counter attack. Culloden Battlefield Historic Site Culloden was the site, in 1746, of the last armed conflict on the British mainland, after several centuries of recurring conflicts between Scotland and England. Culloden Battlefield is a short bus ride from Inverness (about 30 minutes). With specially written audio and supporting illustrations and video, the portable guide’s compelling content is … Discover the beauty hidden in the maps. Barrell's lost 17 and suffered 108 wounded, out of a total of 373 officers and men. Charles Edward Stuart chose not to re-group his forces and fled abroad. Today only one copy of the alleged order to "give no quarter" exists. B. This weapon had a range of 500 yards (460 m) and fired two kinds of shot: round iron and canister. There had been no sign of a French landing or any significant number of English recruits, while they risked being caught between two armies, each one twice their size: Cumberland's, advancing north from London, and Wade's moving south from Newcastle upon Tyne. B: The Highland army when the Battle began, C. C: The Highland Army as they made the attack. Entering England and returning was a considerable military achievement and morale was high; Jacobite strength increased to over 8,000 with the addition of a substantial north-eastern contingent under Lord Lewis Gordon, as well as Scottish and Irish regulars in French service. A: The Position of the English Army when the Battle began. The Irish Picquets under Stapleton bravely covered the Highlanders' retreat from the battlefield, preventing the fleeing Jacobites from suffering heavy casualties: this action cost half of the 100 casualties they suffered in the battle. Out of 27 officers of the English "Manchester Regiment": one died in prison; one was acquitted; one was pardoned; two were released for giving evidence; four escaped; two were banished; three were transported; and eleven were executed. Today, hundreds of people visit the battlefield each year to pay their respects to those who lost their lives on that day. Around 500 men from the Irish Brigade fought in the battle, around 100 of whom were thought to have been recruited from 6th (Guise's) Foot taken prisoner at Fort Augustus. [39] The issue had not been fully resolved by the time of the battle and in the event circumstances largely dictated the point at which the Jacobites formed line, some distance to the west of the site chosen by Sullivan.[40]. Commander-in-Chief North Britain: Lieutenant-General Henry Hawley, See the following reference for source of tables[110], See following reference for source of table[114], Final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745, Soldiers of the 8th, 20th, 34th, 36th and 48th Regiments, circa 1742. Similar orders must have been received by the Highland units at Fort Augustus, and by 18 April the majority of the Jacobite army was disbanded. Discover the beauty hidden in the maps. Behind them the 'Low Country' regiments were drawn up in column, in accordance with French practice. Culloden Battlefield Mass Graves Location Culloden , Highland , Scotland Add to Map Apr 19, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Celtic Dancer *. [66] At least two of those present at Ruthven, James Johnstone and John Daniel, recorded that the Highland troops remained in good spirits despite the defeat and eager to resume the campaign. C. C: only some breakings in the Line occasion’d by the marshy Ground. Within a few hundred yards, however, the centre regiments, Lady Mackintosh's and Lovat's, had begun to swerve rightwards, either trying to avoid canister fire or in order to follow the firmer ground along the road running diagonally across Drummossie Moor. The unit was commanded by Maj Patrick Grant of Glenmoriston and Alexander Grant, younger of Shewglie. By a return of the Officers and Men, the day of Battle, the 15 Battalions were just 6411: which with the Dragoons, Kingston’s Horse, Artillery, Lord Louden’s, and the Argyleshire Highlanders, made the Duke’s army always reckoned, about 10000 Men. In any event, Cumberland's order was not carried out for two days, after which contemporary accounts report then that for the next two days the moor was searched and all those wounded were put to death. Sullivan went to inform Charles Edward Stuart of the change of plan, but missed him in the dark. We provide wheelchairs, free of charge. your own Pins on Pinterest For example, pistol balls and pieces of shattered muskets have been uncovered here which indicate close quarters fighting, as pistols were only used at close range and the musket pieces appear to have been smashed by pistol/musket balls or heavy broadswords. At least seven privates were executed, some no doubt died in prison, and most of the rest were transported to the colonies. Reid gives "500" in Reid (2002), p. 26.; he states that Inverallochie's battalion that took part in the battle numbered "about 300". Shewing the Incampment of the ENGLISH ARMY at NAIRN, and the March of the Highlanders in Order to Attack Them by Night. This page shows the location of Culloden Moor, Inverness IV2 5EU, UK on a detailed road map. Battle plan of Culloden, 1753. Almost all of the 87 of the men from this unit who surrendered on 4 May were transported. According to Tripadvisor travellers, these are the best ways to experience Culloden Battlefield: Highlander Loch Ness and Culloden Battlefield 8 Seater Tour from Inverness (From US$82.92) Loch Ness, Whisky and Outlander Day Tour from Inverness (From US$66.34) Inverness Outlander Tour … [61] Contrary to government depictions of Charles as a coward, he yelled "they won't take me alive!" And though it’s a designated war grave, no regiment in the British Army has it listed on its battle honours. [88][89] A stone lies on the eastern side of the battlefield that is supposed to mark the spot where Cumberland directed the battle. Map of the 2015 Culloden Muir Protection Area indicating that the battle took place over a much wider … Osprey Publishing. The Battle of Culloden is one of the most historically important civil wars of Great Britain. Finally, on 19 September, Charles reached Borrodale on Loch nan Uamh in Arisaig, where his party boarded two small French ships, which ferried them to France. * Culloden Battlefield Guide For a really unique experience, try the new Culloden battlefield guide and immerse yourself in the story of a momentous day as you visit the site of … This page shows the location of Culloden Moor, Inverness IV2 5EU, UK on a detailed satellite map. English: Map of the Battle of Culloden. Independent visitor reviews of accessibility at Culloden can be found on the Euan’s Guide website. In striking contrast to the Jacobite losses, the government losses were reported as 50 dead and 259 wounded. [79] The forfeited estates were managed by factors. MacGregors serving in MacDonald of Keppoch's Regiment were commanded by John MacGregor of Glengyle. Many were not combat experienced, having spent the preceding years on anti-smuggling duties. [13], On 1 February, the siege of Stirling was abandoned and the Jacobites retreated to Inverness. At the battle of Culloden, the Hanoverian army led by the Duke of Cumberland, son of King George II, defeated the much smaller army of Lord John Murray and Prince Charles Edward Stuart. [33], Several significant Jacobite units were still en route or engaged far to the north, but on learning of the government advance their main army of about 5,400 left its base at Inverness on 15 April and assembled in battle order 5 miles (8 km) to the east. Note: Clicking on any of the directions above, will automatically zoom in on that location within the map. [87] West of this site lies another stone, erected by Forbes, marking the place where the body of Alexander McGillivray of Dunmaglass was found after the battle. The smaller units on their right - Maclachlan's Regiment and Chisholm's and Monaltrie's battalions - advanced into an area swept by artillery fire, and suffered heavy losses before falling back. Poor Barrell's regiment were sorely pressed by those desperadoes and outflanked. They are also attempting to expand the land under its care to ensure the full battlefield is protected under the NTS. This map shows the skewing of the Jacobite front line as the right wing moved forward, but the left wing stayed anchored to the enclosure wall. The result was that the Royal Écossais and Kilmarnock's Footguards were forced out into the open moor and were engaged by three squadrons of Kerr's 11th Dragoons: the fleeing Jacobites must have put up a fight, for Kerr's 11th recorded at least 16 horses killed during the entirety of the battle. It was the last pitched battle fought on British soil. Get free map for your website. Independent visitor reviews of accessibility at Culloden can be found on the Euan’s Guide website. Culloden Battlefield saw the last battle on Scottish soil. [41] By then, many Jacobite soldiers had dispersed in search of food or returned to Inverness, while others were asleep in ditches and outbuildings; several hundred of their army may have missed the battle. Rome2rio makes travelling from Inverness to Culloden Moor, Culloden Battlefield easy. It was the final attempt of the Jacobite rising that resulted in a victory for the House of Hanover over the House of Stuart. your own Pins on Pinterest The other weapon used was the Coehorn mortar. At least two companies of MacGregors, commanded by James Mor Drummond, served in the Duke of Perth's Regiment. Visit and you’ll find out why. The National Trust of Scotland is currently attempting to restore Culloden Moor, as closely as possible, to the state it was in during the Battle of Culloden Moor. Website Visiting Culloden. Frank Watson Wood, (1862–1953). The following overview lists the admission prices and various discounts for a visit to Culloden Battlefield and Visitor Centre in Inverness. Another goal is to restore Leannach Cottage and allow visitors to once again tour the interior. The Battle of Culloden (/kəˈlɒdən/;[3] Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There is also a visitors centre, well worth the visit where you will experience a dramatisation in a … The Inventory boundary for the Battle of Culloden is defined on the accompanying map and includes the following areas: Culloden House and grounds. A Highland Jacobite officer wrote: "We were likewise forbid in the attack to make use of firearms, but only of sword, dirk and bayonet, to cutt the tent strings, and pull down the poles, and where observed a swelling or bulge in the falen tent, there to strick and push vigorously". Find all the transport options for your trip from Dingwall to Culloden Moor, Culloden Battlefield right here. [47] John Daniel, an Englishman serving with Charles's army, recorded that on seeing the government troops the Jacobites began to "huzza and bravado them", though without response: "on the contrary, they continued proceding, like a deep sullen river". Map of the Battle of Culloden 16th April 1746 in the Jacobite Rebellion: map by John Fawkes. Murray led them across country with the intention of avoiding government outposts: Murray's one time aide-de-camp, James Chevalier de Johnstone later wrote, "this march across country in a dark night which did not allow us to follow any track [was] accompanied with confusion and disorder". Horse commanded by Lieutenant General Hawley, and Major General Bland. The Jacobite artillery is generally regarded as playing little part in the battle, all but one of the cannon being 3-pounders.[27]. Find the best walking trails near you in … Choose from several map styles. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart fought loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland near Inverness. According to the account of Andrew Henderson, Lord John Drummond walked across the front of the Jacobite lines to try and tempt the government infantry into firing early, but they maintained their discipline. Culloden Woodland and Battlefield Trail is a 2.8 mile loop trail located near Inverness, Highland, Scotland that offers the chance to see wildlife and is good for all skill levels. [26] As the campaign progressed, supplies from France improved their equipment considerably and by the time of Culloden, many were equipped with 0.69 in (17.5 mm) calibre French and Spanish firelocks. On 8 May, nearby at Murlaggan, Lochiel, Lochgarry, Clanranald and Barisdale all agreed to rendezvous at Invermallie on 18 May, as did Lord Lovat and his son. Culloden Culloden is a village to the east of Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. The Jacobite left, by contrast, advanced much more slowly, hampered by boggy ground and by having several hundred yards further to cover. 26–27. Following up on the military success won by their forces, the British Government enacted laws further to integrate Scotland – specifically the Scottish Highlands – with the rest of Britain. [48] Once within 500 metres, Cumberland moved his artillery up through the ranks. One stand of their colours was taken; Collonel Riches hand cutt off in their defence ... We marched up to the enemy, and our left, outflanking them, wheeled in upon them; the whole then gave them 5 or 6 fires with vast execution, while their front had nothing left to oppose us, but their pistolls and broadswords; and fire from their center and rear, (as, by this time, they were 20 or 30 deep) was vastly more fatal to themselves, than us. The Jacobites, with limited French military support, attempted to consolidate their control of Scotland, where by early 1746 they were opposed by a substantial government army. [51] The government artillery responded shortly afterwards: while some later Jacobite memoirs suggest their troops were then subjected to artillery bombardment for 30 minutes or more while Charles delayed an advance, government accounts suggest a much shorter exchange before the Jacobites attacked. The Culloden Battlefield is a must-see site for any history buff hoping to untangle the story of the British Isles. Although he was better known as a Naval artist who mainly painted in water colours Frank Watson Wood painted The Highland Charge at the Battle of Culloden in oil. The result was the right wing was closer to the enemy than the left wing and that gaps appeared in the line as it stretched. Powered scooters can be borrowed to tour the battlefield. ", "Point of Contact: Archaeology at Culloden", "SUTHERLAND, William, Lord Strathnaver (1708-50)", "Augustin Heckel: The Battle of Culloden", "Handel - Judas Maccabaeus - Programme Notes", Hakka Muggies - Feed The Fairies (2010, CD) | Discogs, Cumberland's dispatch from the battle, published in the London Gazette, Culloden Moor and the Story of the Battle (1867 account), Controversy over the redevelopment of the NTS visitor centre at Culloden, Ghosts of Culloden including the Great Scree and Highlander Ghost, "A plan of the battle of Coullodin moore fought on the 16th of Aprile 1746", "A plan of the Battle of Culloden and the adjacent country, shewing the incampment of the English army at Nairn and the march of the Highlanders in order to attack them by night", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Culloden&oldid=996453511, Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Scottish Gaelic-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Second Line commanded by [Major General] Huske. [66], With visible proof that the French had not deserted them, a group of Jacobite leaders attempted to prolong the campaign. The two armies eventually met at Culloden, on terrain that gave Cumberland's larger, well-rested force the advantage. Oct 3, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by J'nell Ciesielski. Visitors can purchase entrance tickets to find themselves on the frontlines of one of the most important battles in British history and explore the popular site at their own pace. Culloden House – where the Charles Edward Stuart and his Officers stayed, and many of the Jacobites camped, prior to the battle. They faced north-east over common grazing land, with the Water of Nairn about 1 km to their right. Culloden Battlefield, Loch Ness, Urquhart Castle, Glen Ord Distillery and more! [84] A stone, known as "The English Stone", is situated west of the Old Leanach cottage and is said to mark the burial place of the government dead. Culloden Battlefield is the historic site of the last battle on British soil in 1746. The headquarters of the Jacobite army prior to the battle and the lodgings of Bonnie Prince Charlie. Map route starts from Loch Lomond, United Kingdom and end at Culloden Battlefield, Culloden Moor, Inverness IV2 5EU, UK. Rome2rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from any location in the world. Things to do near Culloden Battlefield on Tripadvisor: See reviews and 2,617 candid photos of things to do near Culloden Battlefield in Culloden Moor, United Kingdom. [28] The bulk of the infantry units had already seen action at Falkirk, but had been further drilled, rested and resupplied since then. It’s an easy walk, physically. Most of the rest of the army broke up, with men heading for home or attempting to escape abroad,[66] although the Appin Regiment amongst others was still in arms as late as July. The plan was that there they would be joined by what remained of Keppoch's men and Macpherson of Cluny's regiment, which had not taken part in the battle at Culloden. References: Brander M 1975, SCOTTISH AND BORDER BATTLES AND BALLADS, 215-217. [7], The Prince's Council, a committee formed of 15-20 senior leaders, met on 30 and 31 October to discuss plans to invade England. The confusion was worsened when the three largest regiments lost their commanding officers, who were all at the front of the advance: MacGillivray and MacBean of Lady Mackintosh's both went down; Inverallochie of Lovat's fell, and Lochiel had his ankles broken by canister within a few yards of the government lines. Terrified locals live in fear of Culloden Moor's "anniversary ghosts", spectral soldiers who appear from thin air to fight each other every year on 16 April, the day of the battle. The Battle of Culloden took place on Culloden Moor, (a short drive outside Inverness), on 16 April 1746. [8] For Charles, the main prize was England; he argued removing the Hanoverians would guarantee an independent Scotland and assured the Scots that the French were planning to land in Southern England, while thousands of English supporters would join once across the border. After a heated council with other officers, Murray concluded that there was not enough time to mount a surprise attack and that the offensive should be aborted. A standard cavalryman had a Land Service pistol and a carbine, but the main weapon used by the British cavalry was a sword with a 35-inch blade. Discover (and save!) Cumberland decided to wait out the winter, and moved his troops northwards to Aberdeen. I did actually engage the others being intimidated [frightened] on seeing those who made such a desperate attack, obliged to give way. On the day of the planned rendezvous, Clanranald never appeared and Lochgarry and Barisdale only showed up with about 300 combined, most of whom immediately dispersed in search of food: Lochiel, who commanded possibly the strongest Jacobite regiment at Culloden, was only able to muster 300 men. Dejean's lost 14 and had 68 wounded, with this unit's left wing taking a disproportionately higher number of casualties. Interesting finds have been made in the areas where the fiercest fighting occurred on the government left wing, particularly where Barrell's and Dejean's regiments stood. The trail is primarily used for hiking, walking, and nature trips. The battle lasted only an hour, with the Jacobites suffering a bloody defeat; between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded,[1][2] while about 300 government soldiers were killed or wounded. Of the 16 British infantry battalions, 11 were English, 4 were Scottish (3 Lowland + 1 Highland), and 1 Irish battalion. 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