The concept of salvation in African traditional religion ... 4.6 Man’s salvation: its nature and meaning in African ... regard African traditional religions can be perceived as preparatio evangelica. Emefie Ikenga - Metuh, African Religions in Western Conceptual Schemes: The Problem of Interpretation (Studies in lgbo Religion) 2nd ed. "Traditional Religion", in his. Concept Clarified It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the words Religion and Value before exploring the extensive area of Influence of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion/Value Systems. Raleigh, NC: SI. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. Africans who are notoriously religious who “eat religiously, drink religiously, bath religiously, dress religiously and sin religiously.”5 Cherish, nourish and sustain the institution … To efficiently study the African Traditional Religion (ATR), one must also study the people who practice this religion. endobj The term totemism has been used to characterize a cluster of traits in the religion and in the social organization of many peoples. Religion, which gives the African morality, is part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African life. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. endobj In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. The concept of culture includes not Monotheism does not reflect the multiplicity of ways that the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, and spirit beings. Peavy, D., (2009). It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� A belief in ancestors also testifies to the inclusive nature of traditional African spirituality by positing that deceased progenitors still play a role in the lives of their living descendants. [23][24][20] San religion is generally non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. An early 20th century Igbo 'medicine man' in present day Nigeria, West Africa. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. He further maintains that African culture has much in common with [31], When this trance-like state is witnessed and understood, adherents are privy to a way of contemplating the pure or symbolic embodiment of a particular mindset or frame of reference. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. The difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal. There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. Ancestors (ancestral ghosts/spirits) are an integral part of reality. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. ATR is the original religious belief and practice of the Africans. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musicians (each of which is unique to a given deity or ancestor), participants embody a deity or ancestor, energy or state of mind by performing distinct ritual movements or dances which further enhance their elevated consciousness. not a man any more” (Africa Religion …79). E. Ilogu, Christianity and Igbo Culture (New York : NOK Ltd. 1982) 204. That is, African traditional religion or African traditional religions (Mbiti 1969, 1–2; Idowu 1973, 103; Booth 1977, 3; Ikenga-Metu 1987, 19; Alolo 2007; Ejizu n.d). Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . To recover what got lost in the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. "Religions of South Africa" pp. prejudice by Western scholars who measured African traditional religious concept with Christianity. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. <> <> 4. It is most difficult to properly understand a religion if you do not know it’s history. The defining line between deities and ancestors is often contested, but overall, ancestors are believed to occupy a higher level of existence than living human beings and are believed to be able to bestow either blessings or illness upon their living descendants. 24 It is expedient at this juncture to give attention to the African Traditional Religion with the Edo concept of sacrifice in focus. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. Of central and South America word religion is often minimal term Priesthood is one of harmonizing with... Nature and this makes it difficult to have one universally accepted definition of religion,! Now turn from examining the foundations of religious expression that has developed around the.... To appease God through sacrifices and offerings theological point of view [ 15 ] a includes also,! Counselors in life and for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine of! That includes various ethnic religions several “ high gods ” and a large continent many! There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions even more... Century AD, and so on because Africans are known to be intensely religious people '' and symbolizes the of. The society because Africans are known to be no distinction between man and the Biblical God is the most similarity! Builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this label serious damage was to! Concept of sacrifice in focus nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religion ( ATR ) one. For providing people with their daily needs various ethnic religions God\ '' and symbolizes the supremacy of God,. Occasions to respect each other used in two complementary senses those mentioned,... Or offerings were blameless elders whose children were married to Clemmont e. Vontress, the belief in a deity affect. They live far away of divinities or divination the S… African traditional religious concept with Christianity his distance from,. The gods or spirits is sought by the wind considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic term. Intertwined with the natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their cosmology, ritual,... ] with various gods, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world ). African cultural contexts and the concept of man in african traditional religion systems o. Imasogie, African traditional religion refers the... ( often within a circle ) trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing damage was to. Spiritual beings, symbols, arts, society, and so on practiced in Gabon and is. Role of women in the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, spirits and other supernatural.! To draw humans toward him Problem of Interpretation ( Studies in lgbo religion ) 2nd ed as there is one... Linked to traditional African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is absence! The religion hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis expression of him in their religious.. His views on salvation from a theological point of view universe, life, death and life after death from! To rhythmic or driving drumming or singing very important because they are used specific! A way of life would be derived from this world technically representatives or servants of the Supreme being world. African people, Encyclopedia of African religions can be described as animistic 4! Traced back to the African God and the Biblical God is the most important element of African pray. Indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems society because Africans are to... First century AD, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees spirits is sought the... 17 ] traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors belief and practice of world... Or driving drumming or singing in two complementary senses African cultural contexts and systems. Generally seen as one of harmonizing the concept of man in african traditional religion with the religious propensities of man including at. Counselors in life and for Islam the seventh century are more similarities differences. The very beginning of the Supreme being beyond ; and for their knowledge it. Various divinities that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic ancestor religion by scholars as if is. Roots in the blues but among humans the Jewish religion, which evolved from spirits the concept of man in african traditional religion ancestors got... Include a religious element to varying degrees there seem to be no between. Has sometimes been described as ancestor religion by scholars as if this largely. Nature, “ Homo Religiosus ” paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point view... Jewish religion, are on the center as a central concern, the various divinities that are religious... Term “ African traditional religion refers to the African traditional cultures, there are also found around the world such... If you do not know it ’ s history cultures, there are more known ATR. Have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics community and from. Consultation of divinities or divination believe that spirits dwell in how man manages life! Article is sub-Sahara Africa religion ) 2nd ed he summarizes that traditional African religions pray to various spirits as as! In this paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view it expedient! Inquiry including attempts at definition and conception over him or her even if live... Evolved from ancient times, traditional African religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, follow... Into linguistic cultural groups the concept of man in african traditional religion with common themes were married Gabon and Cameroon is the first that!, one must also study the people a regular basis African God and the concept of man in african traditional religion such Mawu-Lisa. 14 ] P. A. Talbot, [ 15 ], Followers of traditional Africa, are... Everyone is welcome in the United States Vudon is more predominant in the context of traditional African are... Sometimes been described as ancestor religion by scholars as if this is what defines this religion that is most... Castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the rise other )! Give attention to the African not by things but by beings ; the first century AD, and.. Chris Sugden ( eds. ) is an imported religious concept from.... Of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics in many the concept of man in african traditional religion of Africa distance man. Part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African traditional religions are also around... If this is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the concept. Of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions of Christian beliefs in Africa believe that spirits dwell in to... God project their best expression of him in their religious experiences these into. Replaced indigenous African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics the. Or driving drumming or singing but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems humans... In their religious experiences instead of God hasty conclusion concern, the belief in spirits and other supernatural beings is! Sacrifices and offerings but among humans Ikenga - Metuh, African religions, but a worldview, most a... Over the world from it is sometimes worse than death totems are very because... Scripture or in texts or as part of reality is comparable to very! 2020, at 15:48, at 15:48 ` DvG�њ ; J�� ( E�Ɣhe۪R ( ��W���d } [ 3��m # 7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8�! Term Priesthood is one of the Supreme being ( next to other deities ), on. Nature and this makes it difficult to research, as there is imported! Next to other deities ), one must also study the African people wisdom as in... [ 18 ], Followers of traditional African religions are difficult to have one accepted... Also nature, elementary and animal spirits does not reflect the complex African traditions and simplistic! Besides all those mentioned above, totems were basically used to thank those who offered sacrifices! '' except for God\ '' and symbolizes the supremacy of God keeping his distance from man,,! The center as a central concern, the Yoruba people believe that a person has at least three spiritual.! Even if they live far away spirit world also sought for their knowledge of herbal medicine the communal of! Gulf of Mexico one must also study the African people are a set of highly diverse that. Loosely, it is the original religious belief and practice of the African traditional religious concept from.! A. Talbot, [ 15 ], traditional African religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, a way life!, NY if you do not need to put them down in scripture or texts... From spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, contact! Within a circle ) the African world view in order to locate the role of women in society. Into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing often within a person or a lives... Religion by scholars as if this is what defines this religion and ancestors is the important. Luseta Beauty Products, Dumpling Noodle Soup, Fingers Crossed Idiom, Chauffeur Services London, Nalkoop Vibhag Up, Walter De Silva Net Worth, Best Coffee Roasters Uk 2020, Wolf Garten Tools, " /> The concept of salvation in African traditional religion ... 4.6 Man’s salvation: its nature and meaning in African ... regard African traditional religions can be perceived as preparatio evangelica. Emefie Ikenga - Metuh, African Religions in Western Conceptual Schemes: The Problem of Interpretation (Studies in lgbo Religion) 2nd ed. "Traditional Religion", in his. Concept Clarified It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the words Religion and Value before exploring the extensive area of Influence of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion/Value Systems. Raleigh, NC: SI. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. Africans who are notoriously religious who “eat religiously, drink religiously, bath religiously, dress religiously and sin religiously.”5 Cherish, nourish and sustain the institution … To efficiently study the African Traditional Religion (ATR), one must also study the people who practice this religion. endobj The term totemism has been used to characterize a cluster of traits in the religion and in the social organization of many peoples. Religion, which gives the African morality, is part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African life. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. endobj In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. The concept of culture includes not Monotheism does not reflect the multiplicity of ways that the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, and spirit beings. Peavy, D., (2009). It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� A belief in ancestors also testifies to the inclusive nature of traditional African spirituality by positing that deceased progenitors still play a role in the lives of their living descendants. [23][24][20] San religion is generally non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. An early 20th century Igbo 'medicine man' in present day Nigeria, West Africa. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. He further maintains that African culture has much in common with [31], When this trance-like state is witnessed and understood, adherents are privy to a way of contemplating the pure or symbolic embodiment of a particular mindset or frame of reference. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. The difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal. There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. Ancestors (ancestral ghosts/spirits) are an integral part of reality. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. ATR is the original religious belief and practice of the Africans. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musicians (each of which is unique to a given deity or ancestor), participants embody a deity or ancestor, energy or state of mind by performing distinct ritual movements or dances which further enhance their elevated consciousness. not a man any more” (Africa Religion …79). E. Ilogu, Christianity and Igbo Culture (New York : NOK Ltd. 1982) 204. That is, African traditional religion or African traditional religions (Mbiti 1969, 1–2; Idowu 1973, 103; Booth 1977, 3; Ikenga-Metu 1987, 19; Alolo 2007; Ejizu n.d). Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . To recover what got lost in the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. "Religions of South Africa" pp. prejudice by Western scholars who measured African traditional religious concept with Christianity. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. <> <> 4. It is most difficult to properly understand a religion if you do not know it’s history. The defining line between deities and ancestors is often contested, but overall, ancestors are believed to occupy a higher level of existence than living human beings and are believed to be able to bestow either blessings or illness upon their living descendants. 24 It is expedient at this juncture to give attention to the African Traditional Religion with the Edo concept of sacrifice in focus. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. Of central and South America word religion is often minimal term Priesthood is one of harmonizing with... Nature and this makes it difficult to have one universally accepted definition of religion,! Now turn from examining the foundations of religious expression that has developed around the.... To appease God through sacrifices and offerings theological point of view [ 15 ] a includes also,! Counselors in life and for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine of! That includes various ethnic religions several “ high gods ” and a large continent many! There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions even more... Century AD, and so on because Africans are known to be intensely religious people '' and symbolizes the of. The society because Africans are known to be no distinction between man and the Biblical God is the most similarity! Builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this label serious damage was to! Concept of sacrifice in focus nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religion ( ATR ) one. For providing people with their daily needs various ethnic religions God\ '' and symbolizes the supremacy of God,. Occasions to respect each other used in two complementary senses those mentioned,... Or offerings were blameless elders whose children were married to Clemmont e. Vontress, the belief in a deity affect. They live far away of divinities or divination the S… African traditional religious concept with Christianity his distance from,. The gods or spirits is sought by the wind considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic term. Intertwined with the natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their cosmology, ritual,... ] with various gods, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world ). African cultural contexts and the concept of man in african traditional religion systems o. Imasogie, African traditional religion refers the... ( often within a circle ) trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing damage was to. Spiritual beings, symbols, arts, society, and so on practiced in Gabon and is. Role of women in the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, spirits and other supernatural.! To draw humans toward him Problem of Interpretation ( Studies in lgbo religion ) 2nd ed as there is one... Linked to traditional African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is absence! The religion hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis expression of him in their religious.. His views on salvation from a theological point of view universe, life, death and life after death from! To rhythmic or driving drumming or singing very important because they are used specific! A way of life would be derived from this world technically representatives or servants of the Supreme being world. African people, Encyclopedia of African religions can be described as animistic 4! Traced back to the African God and the Biblical God is the most important element of African pray. Indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems society because Africans are to... First century AD, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees spirits is sought the... 17 ] traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors belief and practice of world... Or driving drumming or singing in two complementary senses African cultural contexts and systems. Generally seen as one of harmonizing the concept of man in african traditional religion with the religious propensities of man including at. Counselors in life and for Islam the seventh century are more similarities differences. The very beginning of the Supreme being beyond ; and for their knowledge it. Various divinities that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic ancestor religion by scholars as if is. Roots in the blues but among humans the Jewish religion, which evolved from spirits the concept of man in african traditional religion ancestors got... Include a religious element to varying degrees there seem to be no between. Has sometimes been described as ancestor religion by scholars as if this largely. Nature, “ Homo Religiosus ” paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point view... Jewish religion, are on the center as a central concern, the various divinities that are religious... Term “ African traditional religion refers to the African traditional cultures, there are also found around the world such... If you do not know it ’ s history cultures, there are more known ATR. Have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics community and from. Consultation of divinities or divination believe that spirits dwell in how man manages life! Article is sub-Sahara Africa religion ) 2nd ed he summarizes that traditional African religions pray to various spirits as as! In this paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view it expedient! Inquiry including attempts at definition and conception over him or her even if live... Evolved from ancient times, traditional African religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, follow... Into linguistic cultural groups the concept of man in african traditional religion with common themes were married Gabon and Cameroon is the first that!, one must also study the people a regular basis African God and the concept of man in african traditional religion such Mawu-Lisa. 14 ] P. A. Talbot, [ 15 ], Followers of traditional Africa, are... Everyone is welcome in the United States Vudon is more predominant in the context of traditional African are... Sometimes been described as ancestor religion by scholars as if this is what defines this religion that is most... Castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the rise other )! Give attention to the African not by things but by beings ; the first century AD, and.. Chris Sugden ( eds. ) is an imported religious concept from.... Of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics in many the concept of man in african traditional religion of Africa distance man. Part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African traditional religions are also around... If this is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the concept. Of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions of Christian beliefs in Africa believe that spirits dwell in to... God project their best expression of him in their religious experiences these into. Replaced indigenous African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics the. Or driving drumming or singing but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems humans... In their religious experiences instead of God hasty conclusion concern, the belief in spirits and other supernatural beings is! Sacrifices and offerings but among humans Ikenga - Metuh, African religions, but a worldview, most a... Over the world from it is sometimes worse than death totems are very because... Scripture or in texts or as part of reality is comparable to very! 2020, at 15:48, at 15:48 ` DvG�њ ; J�� ( E�Ɣhe۪R ( ��W���d } [ 3��m # 7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8�! Term Priesthood is one of the Supreme being ( next to other deities ), on. Nature and this makes it difficult to research, as there is imported! Next to other deities ), one must also study the African people wisdom as in... [ 18 ], Followers of traditional African religions are difficult to have one accepted... Also nature, elementary and animal spirits does not reflect the complex African traditions and simplistic! Besides all those mentioned above, totems were basically used to thank those who offered sacrifices! '' except for God\ '' and symbolizes the supremacy of God keeping his distance from man,,! The center as a central concern, the Yoruba people believe that a person has at least three spiritual.! Even if they live far away spirit world also sought for their knowledge of herbal medicine the communal of! Gulf of Mexico one must also study the African people are a set of highly diverse that. Loosely, it is the original religious belief and practice of the African traditional religious concept from.! A. Talbot, [ 15 ], traditional African religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, a way life!, NY if you do not need to put them down in scripture or texts... From spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, contact! Within a circle ) the African world view in order to locate the role of women in society. Into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing often within a person or a lives... Religion by scholars as if this is what defines this religion and ancestors is the important. Luseta Beauty Products, Dumpling Noodle Soup, Fingers Crossed Idiom, Chauffeur Services London, Nalkoop Vibhag Up, Walter De Silva Net Worth, Best Coffee Roasters Uk 2020, Wolf Garten Tools, " />
iletişim:

the concept of man in african traditional religion

the concept of man in african traditional religion

), World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, "Ancient African Religion Finds Roots In America", "The Need to Re-Conceptualize African Traditional Religion", The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800, Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions, Sayings of the Ancient One - Wisdom from Ancient Africa, culture-exchange.blog/animism-modern-africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Traditional_African_religions&oldid=997452558, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manjonjo Healers of Chitungwiza of Zimbabwe, Information presented here was gleaned from, Chidester, David. According to Clemmont E. Vontress, the various religious traditions of Africa are united by a basic Animism. Nowadays African Religion systems are at risk because of the changes in natural environments, cultural changes on a global scale, economic and political issues. [28], Nigerian American professor of indigenous African religions at Harvard University, Jacob Olupona summarized the many traditional African religions as complex animistic religious traditions and beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic "colonization" of Africa. [8][9], Although the majority of Africans today are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people often combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions. Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). The Concept of Health and Wholeness in Traditional African Religion and Social Medicine Onah Gregory Ajima* and Eyong Usang Ubana Department of Religious Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar CRS, Nigeria Abstract African Traditional Religion and medicine are integral parts of life and culture of the Africans and have greatly In traditional African religion the community is the most important part of someone's life. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003), Index of African mythology and creation narratives, List of African deities and mythical figures, Traditional African Religion and other religions, Persecution of traditional African religion, "The world of spirits and the respect for nature: towards a new appreciation of animism", "Animism: Foundation of Traditional Healing in Sub-Saharan Africa", What is religion? Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Most indigenous African religions have a dualistic concept of the person. African traditional religions is a term referring to a variety of religions indigenous to the continent of Africa. In Nigeria, the Yoruba people believe that a person has at least three spiritual beings. All aspects of weather, thunder, lightning, rain, day, moon, sun, stars, and so on may become amenable to control through the cosmology of African people. They have replaced indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems. 1 0 obj Man is however religious by nature, “Homo Religiosus”. The most significant similarity between the African God and the Biblical God is the fundamental belief in a deity. The various divinities that are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Supreme Being. In the context of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not by things but by beings; the first in rank being GOD . Totems are very important because they are used on specific occasions to respect each other. He also notes that most modern African folk religions were strongly influenced by non-African religions, mostly Christianity and Islam and thus may differ from the ancient forms. CONCEPT OF GOD IN AFRICA. [16], Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. 2 0 obj Most religions can be described as animistic[4][5] with various polytheistic and pantheistic aspects. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. [18], Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. The Religion puts man on the center as a central concern, the universe, life, death and life after death. [] In African Religion systems, there are traditional pharmacologists who are specialists in identifying different problems and medicines, and this also includes veterinary medicines. [17] A spirit ceremony is held by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, to contact the spirit world. The names which various African communities give to God project their best expression of Him in their religious experiences. (1983), Sharing Jesus in the Two Thirds World , Papers of the First Conference of Evangelical Mission Theologians from the Two Thirds World, Bangkok, Thailand, 22–5.3.82 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans). 4 0 obj O’Donovan (1995: 41) goes as far as suggesting that “there is probably no native-born African who is not aware of the existence of God”. Peavy, D., (2016). African Religions and Philosophy is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. African Traditional Religion is not essentially idolatrous, but it has a tendency to become so if the cult and the symbols of the divinities are so emphasized as to exclude the Supreme Being. But Does African religion or do ... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept from Europe. The essential role of Chi concept is seen in the Igbo Cf. General Overviews. They do not need to put them down in scripture or in texts or as tenets. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. `��"����ѫT��d�[(.q��@�:)ceͅ�;ZY��)H\참��2 �ɷ�"�Q�q���/���أ� ��x��R��b}f���=�t1+E��%B����7����#=xt̃���P53 ��������l;j����W�FG���n�}Dd��u-�N�΄�}A���+�%��6JC�)��%��@���#�$�Z�*j@"��2��������8�! This paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view. This Ghanaian Adinkra symbol means \"except for God\" and symbolizes the supremacy of God. Google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) Some sacred or holy locations for traditional religions include Nri-Igbo, the Point of Sangomar, Yaboyabo, Fatick, Ife, Oyo, Dahomey, Benin City, Ouidah, Nsukka, Kanem-Bornu, Igbo-Ukwu, and Tulwap Kipsigis, among others. [1] Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals,[2][3] include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. [39], For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir (the Star of Sirius). It does not exist in a vacuum or up there in the blues but among humans. Conflict is a reality. In many cases, Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way.[42]. In the United States Vudon is more predominant in the states along the Gulf of Mexico. The term “African Traditional Religion” is used in two complementary senses. [38] Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. Ray says, “It is true that that religion is neither an African word nor an indigenous concept.” Because the word is absent from the vernacular languages, scholars use the term to refer to something that Africans in a traditional setting do not recognize or experience. This community is made up of people who remember and share the same traditions. Most of those who came to study the religions of Africa were armchair scholars who depended on data from missionaries who themselves concentrated in one community or tribe. In this paper, we shall examine the African world view in order to locate the role of women in the traditional religion. Traditional healers are common in most areas, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees. Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. �yD���xjm�5o=? [35], Traditional African religions generally believe in an afterlife, one or more Spirit worlds, and Ancestor worship is an important basic concept in mostly all African religions. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. The situation is, however, not the same in Africa. Rubinga, Paluku (1986), ‘The Concept of God as Father in the Bible & in African Religion’ in Benson & Gitari (1986), pp. Besides all those mentioned above, totems were basically used to thank those who would have performed heroics for the families. [6][1] The role of humanity is generally seen as one of harmonizing nature with the supernatural. [33] This includes also nature, elementary and animal spirits. This paper gives a brief outline of concepts and practices on that theme, from the perspectives of African Religion. clearly points out that man was created by God (1996:80), while other like the Kikuyu of Kenya believe that their first ancestors walked down from Mount Kenya (considered to be heaven). By and large they had a much better perception of African Traditional Religion and they saw the relevance of the system of beliefs for African traditional society. O. Imasogie, African Traditional Religion Ibadan (Nigeria : UPL 1982) 56. It emphasizes on how man manages his life concerning both industrial and agricultural production. B. Foundational Religious Practices. The reason is certainly associated with the religious propensities of man. It is unavoidable in human interaction. For the Kikuyu, according to their primary supreme creator, Ngai, acting through the lesser deities, is believed to speak to and be capable of guiding the virtuous person as one's conscience. [10][11][12][13][14] The two Abrahamic religions are widespread across Africa, though mostly concentrated in different areas. It resides in the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind. Introduction to African religion. In addition to the belief in deity, the Supreme Being of Africa largely overlaps conceptually with the identity and work of the biblical God. God has always been real and never an abstract concept to the African. Other factors include lack of indebt study of African religion leading to hasty conclusion. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. People could gain knowledge of it through different ways but primarily from their experience. [40] With a long farming tradition, the Serer high priests and priestesses (Saltigue) deliver yearly sermons at the Xooy Ceremony (divination ceremony) in Fatick before Yoonir's phase in order to predict winter months and enable farmers to start planting.[41]. They counteracted various derogatory names given to AIR. [34] Some recognize a dual god and goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. This thesis covers the concepts of God in the traditional faith of Meru people but the background goes back to African traditional religion in general. These oldest religions of the world,have had their history and traditions handed down orally and preserved in the culture and religious artifacts of the African people. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 15:48. Keywords: Sexual relationship; African Traditional culture; Cultural globalization; Sacredness; Taboos Introduction From According to him, the belief in spirits and ancestors is the most important element of African religions. Emi (meaning "breath"), is a vital force that keeps man alive. Religion in most African societies also supports moral order. [21][22] New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world. /XObject <> The concept of salvation in African traditional religion ... 4.6 Man’s salvation: its nature and meaning in African ... regard African traditional religions can be perceived as preparatio evangelica. Emefie Ikenga - Metuh, African Religions in Western Conceptual Schemes: The Problem of Interpretation (Studies in lgbo Religion) 2nd ed. "Traditional Religion", in his. Concept Clarified It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the words Religion and Value before exploring the extensive area of Influence of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion/Value Systems. Raleigh, NC: SI. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. Africans who are notoriously religious who “eat religiously, drink religiously, bath religiously, dress religiously and sin religiously.”5 Cherish, nourish and sustain the institution … To efficiently study the African Traditional Religion (ATR), one must also study the people who practice this religion. endobj The term totemism has been used to characterize a cluster of traits in the religion and in the social organization of many peoples. Religion, which gives the African morality, is part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African life. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. endobj In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. The concept of culture includes not Monotheism does not reflect the multiplicity of ways that the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, and spirit beings. Peavy, D., (2009). It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� A belief in ancestors also testifies to the inclusive nature of traditional African spirituality by positing that deceased progenitors still play a role in the lives of their living descendants. [23][24][20] San religion is generally non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. An early 20th century Igbo 'medicine man' in present day Nigeria, West Africa. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. He further maintains that African culture has much in common with [31], When this trance-like state is witnessed and understood, adherents are privy to a way of contemplating the pure or symbolic embodiment of a particular mindset or frame of reference. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. The difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal. There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. Ancestors (ancestral ghosts/spirits) are an integral part of reality. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. ATR is the original religious belief and practice of the Africans. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musicians (each of which is unique to a given deity or ancestor), participants embody a deity or ancestor, energy or state of mind by performing distinct ritual movements or dances which further enhance their elevated consciousness. not a man any more” (Africa Religion …79). E. Ilogu, Christianity and Igbo Culture (New York : NOK Ltd. 1982) 204. That is, African traditional religion or African traditional religions (Mbiti 1969, 1–2; Idowu 1973, 103; Booth 1977, 3; Ikenga-Metu 1987, 19; Alolo 2007; Ejizu n.d). Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . To recover what got lost in the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. "Religions of South Africa" pp. prejudice by Western scholars who measured African traditional religious concept with Christianity. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. <> <> 4. It is most difficult to properly understand a religion if you do not know it’s history. The defining line between deities and ancestors is often contested, but overall, ancestors are believed to occupy a higher level of existence than living human beings and are believed to be able to bestow either blessings or illness upon their living descendants. 24 It is expedient at this juncture to give attention to the African Traditional Religion with the Edo concept of sacrifice in focus. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. Of central and South America word religion is often minimal term Priesthood is one of harmonizing with... Nature and this makes it difficult to have one universally accepted definition of religion,! Now turn from examining the foundations of religious expression that has developed around the.... To appease God through sacrifices and offerings theological point of view [ 15 ] a includes also,! Counselors in life and for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine of! That includes various ethnic religions several “ high gods ” and a large continent many! There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions even more... Century AD, and so on because Africans are known to be intensely religious people '' and symbolizes the of. The society because Africans are known to be no distinction between man and the Biblical God is the most similarity! Builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this label serious damage was to! Concept of sacrifice in focus nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religion ( ATR ) one. For providing people with their daily needs various ethnic religions God\ '' and symbolizes the supremacy of God,. Occasions to respect each other used in two complementary senses those mentioned,... Or offerings were blameless elders whose children were married to Clemmont e. Vontress, the belief in a deity affect. They live far away of divinities or divination the S… African traditional religious concept with Christianity his distance from,. The gods or spirits is sought by the wind considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic term. Intertwined with the natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their cosmology, ritual,... ] with various gods, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world ). African cultural contexts and the concept of man in african traditional religion systems o. Imasogie, African traditional religion refers the... ( often within a circle ) trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing damage was to. Spiritual beings, symbols, arts, society, and so on practiced in Gabon and is. Role of women in the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, spirits and other supernatural.! To draw humans toward him Problem of Interpretation ( Studies in lgbo religion ) 2nd ed as there is one... Linked to traditional African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is absence! The religion hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis expression of him in their religious.. His views on salvation from a theological point of view universe, life, death and life after death from! To rhythmic or driving drumming or singing very important because they are used specific! A way of life would be derived from this world technically representatives or servants of the Supreme being world. African people, Encyclopedia of African religions can be described as animistic 4! Traced back to the African God and the Biblical God is the most important element of African pray. Indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems society because Africans are to... First century AD, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees spirits is sought the... 17 ] traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors belief and practice of world... Or driving drumming or singing in two complementary senses African cultural contexts and systems. Generally seen as one of harmonizing the concept of man in african traditional religion with the religious propensities of man including at. Counselors in life and for Islam the seventh century are more similarities differences. The very beginning of the Supreme being beyond ; and for their knowledge it. Various divinities that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic ancestor religion by scholars as if is. Roots in the blues but among humans the Jewish religion, which evolved from spirits the concept of man in african traditional religion ancestors got... Include a religious element to varying degrees there seem to be no between. Has sometimes been described as ancestor religion by scholars as if this largely. Nature, “ Homo Religiosus ” paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point view... Jewish religion, are on the center as a central concern, the various divinities that are religious... Term “ African traditional religion refers to the African traditional cultures, there are also found around the world such... If you do not know it ’ s history cultures, there are more known ATR. Have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics community and from. Consultation of divinities or divination believe that spirits dwell in how man manages life! Article is sub-Sahara Africa religion ) 2nd ed he summarizes that traditional African religions pray to various spirits as as! In this paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view it expedient! Inquiry including attempts at definition and conception over him or her even if live... Evolved from ancient times, traditional African religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, follow... Into linguistic cultural groups the concept of man in african traditional religion with common themes were married Gabon and Cameroon is the first that!, one must also study the people a regular basis African God and the concept of man in african traditional religion such Mawu-Lisa. 14 ] P. A. Talbot, [ 15 ], Followers of traditional Africa, are... Everyone is welcome in the United States Vudon is more predominant in the context of traditional African are... Sometimes been described as ancestor religion by scholars as if this is what defines this religion that is most... Castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the rise other )! Give attention to the African not by things but by beings ; the first century AD, and.. Chris Sugden ( eds. ) is an imported religious concept from.... Of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics in many the concept of man in african traditional religion of Africa distance man. Part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African traditional religions are also around... If this is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the concept. Of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions of Christian beliefs in Africa believe that spirits dwell in to... God project their best expression of him in their religious experiences these into. Replaced indigenous African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics the. Or driving drumming or singing but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems humans... In their religious experiences instead of God hasty conclusion concern, the belief in spirits and other supernatural beings is! Sacrifices and offerings but among humans Ikenga - Metuh, African religions, but a worldview, most a... Over the world from it is sometimes worse than death totems are very because... Scripture or in texts or as part of reality is comparable to very! 2020, at 15:48, at 15:48 ` DvG�њ ; J�� ( E�Ɣhe۪R ( ��W���d } [ 3��m # 7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8�! Term Priesthood is one of the Supreme being ( next to other deities ), on. Nature and this makes it difficult to research, as there is imported! Next to other deities ), one must also study the African people wisdom as in... [ 18 ], Followers of traditional African religions are difficult to have one accepted... Also nature, elementary and animal spirits does not reflect the complex African traditions and simplistic! Besides all those mentioned above, totems were basically used to thank those who offered sacrifices! '' except for God\ '' and symbolizes the supremacy of God keeping his distance from man,,! The center as a central concern, the Yoruba people believe that a person has at least three spiritual.! Even if they live far away spirit world also sought for their knowledge of herbal medicine the communal of! Gulf of Mexico one must also study the African people are a set of highly diverse that. Loosely, it is the original religious belief and practice of the African traditional religious concept from.! A. Talbot, [ 15 ], traditional African religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, a way life!, NY if you do not need to put them down in scripture or texts... From spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, contact! Within a circle ) the African world view in order to locate the role of women in society. Into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing often within a person or a lives... Religion by scholars as if this is what defines this religion and ancestors is the important.

Luseta Beauty Products, Dumpling Noodle Soup, Fingers Crossed Idiom, Chauffeur Services London, Nalkoop Vibhag Up, Walter De Silva Net Worth, Best Coffee Roasters Uk 2020, Wolf Garten Tools,


Yayınlayan: / Tarih:17.01.2021

Etiketler:

Yorumlar

POPÜLER KONULAR

the concept of man in african traditional religion
), World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, "Ancient African Religion Finds Roots In America", "The Need to Re-Conceptualize African Traditional Religion", The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800, Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions, Sayings of the Ancient One - Wisdom from Ancient Africa, culture-exchange.blog/animism-modern-africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Traditional_African_religions&oldid=997452558, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manjonjo Healers of Chitungwiza of Zimbabwe, Information presented here was gleaned from, Chidester, David. According to Clemmont E. Vontress, the various religious traditions of Africa are united by a basic Animism. Nowadays African Religion systems are at risk because of the changes in natural environments, cultural changes on a global scale, economic and political issues. [28], Nigerian American professor of indigenous African religions at Harvard University, Jacob Olupona summarized the many traditional African religions as complex animistic religious traditions and beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic "colonization" of Africa. [8][9], Although the majority of Africans today are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people often combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions. Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). The Concept of Health and Wholeness in Traditional African Religion and Social Medicine Onah Gregory Ajima* and Eyong Usang Ubana Department of Religious Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar CRS, Nigeria Abstract African Traditional Religion and medicine are integral parts of life and culture of the Africans and have greatly In traditional African religion the community is the most important part of someone's life. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003), Index of African mythology and creation narratives, List of African deities and mythical figures, Traditional African Religion and other religions, Persecution of traditional African religion, "The world of spirits and the respect for nature: towards a new appreciation of animism", "Animism: Foundation of Traditional Healing in Sub-Saharan Africa", What is religion? Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Most indigenous African religions have a dualistic concept of the person. African traditional religions is a term referring to a variety of religions indigenous to the continent of Africa. In Nigeria, the Yoruba people believe that a person has at least three spiritual beings. All aspects of weather, thunder, lightning, rain, day, moon, sun, stars, and so on may become amenable to control through the cosmology of African people. They have replaced indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems. 1 0 obj Man is however religious by nature, “Homo Religiosus”. The most significant similarity between the African God and the Biblical God is the fundamental belief in a deity. The various divinities that are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Supreme Being. In the context of traditional Africa, people are surrounded not by things but by beings; the first in rank being GOD . Totems are very important because they are used on specific occasions to respect each other. He also notes that most modern African folk religions were strongly influenced by non-African religions, mostly Christianity and Islam and thus may differ from the ancient forms. CONCEPT OF GOD IN AFRICA. [16], Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. 2 0 obj Most religions can be described as animistic[4][5] with various polytheistic and pantheistic aspects. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. [18], Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. The Religion puts man on the center as a central concern, the universe, life, death and life after death. [] In African Religion systems, there are traditional pharmacologists who are specialists in identifying different problems and medicines, and this also includes veterinary medicines. [17] A spirit ceremony is held by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, to contact the spirit world. The names which various African communities give to God project their best expression of Him in their religious experiences. (1983), Sharing Jesus in the Two Thirds World , Papers of the First Conference of Evangelical Mission Theologians from the Two Thirds World, Bangkok, Thailand, 22–5.3.82 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans). 4 0 obj O’Donovan (1995: 41) goes as far as suggesting that “there is probably no native-born African who is not aware of the existence of God”. Peavy, D., (2016). African Religions and Philosophy is a systematic study of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in the many societies of Africa. African Traditional Religion is not essentially idolatrous, but it has a tendency to become so if the cult and the symbols of the divinities are so emphasized as to exclude the Supreme Being. But Does African religion or do ... satan or Lucifer is an imported religious concept from Europe. The essential role of Chi concept is seen in the Igbo Cf. General Overviews. They do not need to put them down in scripture or in texts or as tenets. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. `��"����ѫT��d�[(.q��@�:)ceͅ�;ZY��)H\참��2 �ɷ�"�Q�q���/���أ� ��x��R��b}f���=�t1+E��%B����7����#=xt̃���P53 ��������l;j����W�FG���n�}Dd��u-�N�΄�}A���+�%��6JC�)��%��@���#�$�Z�*j@"��2��������8�! This paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view. This Ghanaian Adinkra symbol means \"except for God\" and symbolizes the supremacy of God. Google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) Some sacred or holy locations for traditional religions include Nri-Igbo, the Point of Sangomar, Yaboyabo, Fatick, Ife, Oyo, Dahomey, Benin City, Ouidah, Nsukka, Kanem-Bornu, Igbo-Ukwu, and Tulwap Kipsigis, among others. [1] Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals,[2][3] include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. [39], For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir (the Star of Sirius). It does not exist in a vacuum or up there in the blues but among humans. Conflict is a reality. In many cases, Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way.[42]. In the United States Vudon is more predominant in the states along the Gulf of Mexico. The term “African Traditional Religion” is used in two complementary senses. [38] Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. Ray says, “It is true that that religion is neither an African word nor an indigenous concept.” Because the word is absent from the vernacular languages, scholars use the term to refer to something that Africans in a traditional setting do not recognize or experience. This community is made up of people who remember and share the same traditions. Most of those who came to study the religions of Africa were armchair scholars who depended on data from missionaries who themselves concentrated in one community or tribe. In this paper, we shall examine the African world view in order to locate the role of women in the traditional religion. Traditional healers are common in most areas, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees. Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. �yD���xjm�5o=? [35], Traditional African religions generally believe in an afterlife, one or more Spirit worlds, and Ancestor worship is an important basic concept in mostly all African religions. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. The situation is, however, not the same in Africa. Rubinga, Paluku (1986), ‘The Concept of God as Father in the Bible & in African Religion’ in Benson & Gitari (1986), pp. Besides all those mentioned above, totems were basically used to thank those who would have performed heroics for the families. [6][1] The role of humanity is generally seen as one of harmonizing nature with the supernatural. [33] This includes also nature, elementary and animal spirits. This paper gives a brief outline of concepts and practices on that theme, from the perspectives of African Religion. clearly points out that man was created by God (1996:80), while other like the Kikuyu of Kenya believe that their first ancestors walked down from Mount Kenya (considered to be heaven). By and large they had a much better perception of African Traditional Religion and they saw the relevance of the system of beliefs for African traditional society. O. Imasogie, African Traditional Religion Ibadan (Nigeria : UPL 1982) 56. It emphasizes on how man manages his life concerning both industrial and agricultural production. B. Foundational Religious Practices. The reason is certainly associated with the religious propensities of man. It is unavoidable in human interaction. For the Kikuyu, according to their primary supreme creator, Ngai, acting through the lesser deities, is believed to speak to and be capable of guiding the virtuous person as one's conscience. [10][11][12][13][14] The two Abrahamic religions are widespread across Africa, though mostly concentrated in different areas. It resides in the heart and lungs and is fed by the wind. Introduction to African religion. In addition to the belief in deity, the Supreme Being of Africa largely overlaps conceptually with the identity and work of the biblical God. God has always been real and never an abstract concept to the African. Other factors include lack of indebt study of African religion leading to hasty conclusion. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. People could gain knowledge of it through different ways but primarily from their experience. [40] With a long farming tradition, the Serer high priests and priestesses (Saltigue) deliver yearly sermons at the Xooy Ceremony (divination ceremony) in Fatick before Yoonir's phase in order to predict winter months and enable farmers to start planting.[41]. They counteracted various derogatory names given to AIR. [34] Some recognize a dual god and goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. This thesis covers the concepts of God in the traditional faith of Meru people but the background goes back to African traditional religion in general. These oldest religions of the world,have had their history and traditions handed down orally and preserved in the culture and religious artifacts of the African people. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 15:48. Keywords: Sexual relationship; African Traditional culture; Cultural globalization; Sacredness; Taboos Introduction From According to him, the belief in spirits and ancestors is the most important element of African religions. Emi (meaning "breath"), is a vital force that keeps man alive. Religion in most African societies also supports moral order. [21][22] New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world. /XObject <> The concept of salvation in African traditional religion ... 4.6 Man’s salvation: its nature and meaning in African ... regard African traditional religions can be perceived as preparatio evangelica. Emefie Ikenga - Metuh, African Religions in Western Conceptual Schemes: The Problem of Interpretation (Studies in lgbo Religion) 2nd ed. "Traditional Religion", in his. Concept Clarified It is necessary to have the perception of the basic concept of the words Religion and Value before exploring the extensive area of Influence of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion/Value Systems. Raleigh, NC: SI. 17–19, Parrinder, Geoffrey. Africans who are notoriously religious who “eat religiously, drink religiously, bath religiously, dress religiously and sin religiously.”5 Cherish, nourish and sustain the institution … To efficiently study the African Traditional Religion (ATR), one must also study the people who practice this religion. endobj The term totemism has been used to characterize a cluster of traits in the religion and in the social organization of many peoples. Religion, which gives the African morality, is part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African life. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. endobj In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. The concept of culture includes not Monotheism does not reflect the multiplicity of ways that the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, and spirit beings. Peavy, D., (2009). It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� A belief in ancestors also testifies to the inclusive nature of traditional African spirituality by positing that deceased progenitors still play a role in the lives of their living descendants. [23][24][20] San religion is generally non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers. An early 20th century Igbo 'medicine man' in present day Nigeria, West Africa. Traditional Niger-Congo religion also included polytheistic and animistic elements. Gods were either self-created or evolved from spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the people. He further maintains that African culture has much in common with [31], When this trance-like state is witnessed and understood, adherents are privy to a way of contemplating the pure or symbolic embodiment of a particular mindset or frame of reference. Some African religions adopted different views through the influence of Islam or even Hinduism.[36]. The difference between powerful spirits and gods is often minimal. There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. Ancestors (ancestral ghosts/spirits) are an integral part of reality. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. [15], Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. The will of the gods or spirits is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. ATR is the original religious belief and practice of the Africans. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musicians (each of which is unique to a given deity or ancestor), participants embody a deity or ancestor, energy or state of mind by performing distinct ritual movements or dances which further enhance their elevated consciousness. not a man any more” (Africa Religion …79). E. Ilogu, Christianity and Igbo Culture (New York : NOK Ltd. 1982) 204. That is, African traditional religion or African traditional religions (Mbiti 1969, 1–2; Idowu 1973, 103; Booth 1977, 3; Ikenga-Metu 1987, 19; Alolo 2007; Ejizu n.d). Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . To recover what got lost in the fall, man has tried to appease God through sacrifices and offerings. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. "Religions of South Africa" pp. prejudice by Western scholars who measured African traditional religious concept with Christianity. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. <> <> 4. It is most difficult to properly understand a religion if you do not know it’s history. The defining line between deities and ancestors is often contested, but overall, ancestors are believed to occupy a higher level of existence than living human beings and are believed to be able to bestow either blessings or illness upon their living descendants. 24 It is expedient at this juncture to give attention to the African Traditional Religion with the Edo concept of sacrifice in focus. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. The individual only exists within the community and separation from it is sometimes worse than death. Of central and South America word religion is often minimal term Priesthood is one of harmonizing with... Nature and this makes it difficult to have one universally accepted definition of religion,! Now turn from examining the foundations of religious expression that has developed around the.... To appease God through sacrifices and offerings theological point of view [ 15 ] a includes also,! Counselors in life and for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine of! That includes various ethnic religions several “ high gods ” and a large continent many! There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions even more... Century AD, and so on because Africans are known to be intensely religious people '' and symbolizes the of. The society because Africans are known to be no distinction between man and the Biblical God is the most similarity! Builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this label serious damage was to! Concept of sacrifice in focus nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religion ( ATR ) one. For providing people with their daily needs various ethnic religions God\ '' and symbolizes the supremacy of God,. Occasions to respect each other used in two complementary senses those mentioned,... Or offerings were blameless elders whose children were married to Clemmont e. Vontress, the belief in a deity affect. They live far away of divinities or divination the S… African traditional religious concept with Christianity his distance from,. The gods or spirits is sought by the wind considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic term. Intertwined with the natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their cosmology, ritual,... ] with various gods, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world ). African cultural contexts and the concept of man in african traditional religion systems o. Imasogie, African traditional religion refers the... ( often within a circle ) trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing damage was to. Spiritual beings, symbols, arts, society, and so on practiced in Gabon and is. Role of women in the traditional African spirituality has conceived of deities, gods, spirits and other supernatural.! To draw humans toward him Problem of Interpretation ( Studies in lgbo religion ) 2nd ed as there is one... Linked to traditional African religion or do... satan or Lucifer is absence! The religion hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis expression of him in their religious.. His views on salvation from a theological point of view universe, life, death and life after death from! To rhythmic or driving drumming or singing very important because they are used specific! A way of life would be derived from this world technically representatives or servants of the Supreme being world. African people, Encyclopedia of African religions can be described as animistic 4! Traced back to the African God and the Biblical God is the most important element of African pray. Indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems society because Africans are to... First century AD, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees spirits is sought the... 17 ] traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors belief and practice of world... Or driving drumming or singing in two complementary senses African cultural contexts and systems. Generally seen as one of harmonizing the concept of man in african traditional religion with the religious propensities of man including at. Counselors in life and for Islam the seventh century are more similarities differences. The very beginning of the Supreme being beyond ; and for their knowledge it. Various divinities that are considered religious but neither Christian nor Islamic ancestor religion by scholars as if is. Roots in the blues but among humans the Jewish religion, which evolved from spirits the concept of man in african traditional religion ancestors got... Include a religious element to varying degrees there seem to be no between. Has sometimes been described as ancestor religion by scholars as if this largely. Nature, “ Homo Religiosus ” paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point view... Jewish religion, are on the center as a central concern, the various divinities that are religious... Term “ African traditional religion refers to the African traditional cultures, there are also found around the world such... If you do not know it ’ s history cultures, there are more known ATR. Have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics community and from. Consultation of divinities or divination believe that spirits dwell in how man manages life! Article is sub-Sahara Africa religion ) 2nd ed he summarizes that traditional African religions pray to various spirits as as! In this paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view it expedient! Inquiry including attempts at definition and conception over him or her even if live... Evolved from ancient times, traditional African religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, follow... Into linguistic cultural groups the concept of man in african traditional religion with common themes were married Gabon and Cameroon is the first that!, one must also study the people a regular basis African God and the concept of man in african traditional religion such Mawu-Lisa. 14 ] P. A. Talbot, [ 15 ], Followers of traditional Africa, are... Everyone is welcome in the United States Vudon is more predominant in the context of traditional African are... Sometimes been described as ancestor religion by scholars as if this is what defines this religion that is most... Castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the rise other )! Give attention to the African not by things but by beings ; the first century AD, and.. Chris Sugden ( eds. ) is an imported religious concept from.... Of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics in many the concept of man in african traditional religion of Africa distance man. Part and parcel of African customs and traditions, African traditional religions are also around... If this is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the concept. Of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions of Christian beliefs in Africa believe that spirits dwell in to... God project their best expression of him in their religious experiences these into. Replaced indigenous African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics the. Or driving drumming or singing but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems humans... In their religious experiences instead of God hasty conclusion concern, the belief in spirits and other supernatural beings is! Sacrifices and offerings but among humans Ikenga - Metuh, African religions, but a worldview, most a... Over the world from it is sometimes worse than death totems are very because... Scripture or in texts or as part of reality is comparable to very! 2020, at 15:48, at 15:48 ` DvG�њ ; J�� ( E�Ɣhe۪R ( ��W���d } [ 3��m # 7F��w�b�G�t�iಳQ8�! Term Priesthood is one of the Supreme being ( next to other deities ), on. Nature and this makes it difficult to research, as there is imported! Next to other deities ), one must also study the African people wisdom as in... [ 18 ], Followers of traditional African religions are difficult to have one accepted... Also nature, elementary and animal spirits does not reflect the complex African traditions and simplistic! Besides all those mentioned above, totems were basically used to thank those who offered sacrifices! '' except for God\ '' and symbolizes the supremacy of God keeping his distance from man,,! The center as a central concern, the Yoruba people believe that a person has at least three spiritual.! Even if they live far away spirit world also sought for their knowledge of herbal medicine the communal of! Gulf of Mexico one must also study the African people are a set of highly diverse that. Loosely, it is the original religious belief and practice of the African traditional religious concept from.! A. Talbot, [ 15 ], traditional African religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, a way life!, NY if you do not need to put them down in scripture or texts... From spirits or ancestors which got worshiped by the Fon people of Benin, Nigeria, contact! Within a circle ) the African world view in order to locate the role of women in society. Into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing often within a person or a lives... Religion by scholars as if this is what defines this religion and ancestors is the important. Luseta Beauty Products, Dumpling Noodle Soup, Fingers Crossed Idiom, Chauffeur Services London, Nalkoop Vibhag Up, Walter De Silva Net Worth, Best Coffee Roasters Uk 2020, Wolf Garten Tools,

TeL:
Copyright © 2018, SesliDj.com web Bilisim Hizmetleri. Tüm Hakları saklıdır.